Military Coups and Military Disengagement

Living reference work entry

Later version available View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_4171-1
  • 53 Downloads

Synonyms

Definition

A coup d’état is the sudden, often violent, overthrow of an existing government by a small group, and it usually refers to military coup.

A military coup is “the removal or the attempted removal of a state’s chief executive by the regular armed forces through the use of threat of force” (Thompson 1973, p. 6).

Military Coups

The military coup d’états have accounted for nearly 200 regime changes in the developing world, making it the most common method of regime change in the post-World War II era (David 1991, pp. 238–239). Between 1945 and 1976, Nordlinger (1977, p. xi) estimated more than two thirds of the countries of Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East had experienced varying levels of military intervention. According to Ruth Leger Sivard’s study (1986, p. 24), a majority of third world countries were characterized by military controlled governments in 1985, nearly half...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Barkey HJ (1990) Why military regimes fail: the perils of transition. Arm Force Soc 16(2):169–192Google Scholar
  2. Belkin A (2005) United e stand: divide-and-conquer politics and the logic of international hostility. SUNY, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  3. Belkin A, Schofer E (2003) Toward a structural understanding of coup risk. J Confl Resolut 47(5):594–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertsch GK, Clark RP, Wood DM (1978) Comparing political systems. Power and policy in three worlds. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Bland LD (2004) ‘Your obedient servant’: the military’s role in the civil control of armed forces. In: Born H, Haltier K, Malesic M (eds) Renaissance of democratic control of armed forces in contemporary societies. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden, pp 25–36Google Scholar
  6. Colton T (1979) Commissars, commanders, and civilian authority: the structure of soviet military politics. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MassGoogle Scholar
  7. Danopoulos CP (1988a) Military dictatorships in retreat: problems and perspectives. In: CP Danopoulos (ed) The decline of military regimes: the civilian influence. Westview Press, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  8. Danopoulos CP (ed) (1988b) Military disengagement from politics. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Danopoulos CP (1992) Intervention and withdrawal: notes and perspectives. In: Danopoulos CP (ed) From military to civilian rule. Routledge, London, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  10. David SR (1991) Explaining third world alignment. World Polit 43(2):233–256Google Scholar
  11. David SR (1987) Third world coups d’etat and international security. John Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  12. Feaver PD (1999) Civil-military relations. Annu Rev Polit Sci 2:211–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Finer SE (1962) The man on horseback. The role of the military in politics. Frederick A. Praeger, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Finer SE (1985) The retreat to the barracks: notes on the practice and theory of military withdrawal from the seats of power. Third World Q 7(1):16–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fitch JS (1977) The military coup d’Etat as a political process: Ecuador, 1948–1976. The Johns Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  16. Fitch JS (1998) The armed forces and democracy in Latin America. The Johns Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  17. Geddes B (1999) What do we know about democratization after twenty years? Ann Rev Polit Sci 2:115–144Google Scholar
  18. Hibbs DA (1973) Mass political violence: a cross-national causal analysis. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Horowitz D (1980) Coup theories and officers motives: Sri Lanka in comparative perspective. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  20. Huber SE (1988) Capitalist development and democracy in South America. Paper prepared for the Meetings of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, April 1988. http://nd.edu/~kellogg/publications/workingpapers/WPS/122.pdf
  21. Huntington S (1957) The soldier and the state: the theory and politics of civil-military relations. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  22. Huntington SP (1968) Political order in changing societies. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  23. Huntington SP (1991) Democracy’s third wave. J Demo 2(2):12–34Google Scholar
  24. Jackman RW (1978) The predictability of coups d’état: a model with African data. Am Polit Sci Rev 72:1262–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Janowitz M (1960) The professional soldier: a social and political portrait. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Janowitz M (1977) Military institutions and coercion in the developing nations. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  27. Kim I (2012) Intra-military divisions and democratization in South Korea. Arm Force Soc 39(4):675–694Google Scholar
  28. Koonings K, Kruijt D (2002) Political armies. The military and nation building in the age of democracy. Zed Books, London/New York, pp 162–178Google Scholar
  29. Loveman B (1999) For la Patria: politics and the armed forces in Latin America. Scholarly Resources, Wilmington, DEGoogle Scholar
  30. Lowenthal AF (1986) Armies and politics in Latin America: introduction to the first edition. In: A Lowenthal, S Fitch (eds) Armies and politics in Latin America. Holmes and Meier, New York, pp 3–25Google Scholar
  31. Luckham R (1991) Introduction: the military, the developmental state and social forces in Asia and the Pacific: issues for comparative analysis. In V Selochan (ed) The military, the state, and development in Asia and the Pacific. Westview, Boulder, pp 1–49Google Scholar
  32. Luttwak E (1968) Coup d’etat. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Maniruzzaman T (1987) Military withdrawal from politics: a comparative study. Ballinger Publishing, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  34. Maniruzzaman T (1992) Arms transfers, military coups, and military rule in developing states. J Conflict Res 36(4):733–755Google Scholar
  35. Marinov N, Goemans H (2014) Coups and democracy. Br J Polit Sci 44:799–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moore B (1966) Social origins of dictatorship and democracy: lord and peasant in the making of the modern world. Boston, MA: Beacon PressGoogle Scholar
  37. Needler MC (1975) Military motivations in the seizure of power. Latin Am Res Rev 10(3):63–79Google Scholar
  38. Needler MC (1980) The military withdrawal from power in South America. Armed Forces Soc 6:614–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Needler MC (1987) The problem of democracy in Latin America. Lexington Books, Lexington MAGoogle Scholar
  40. Nordlinger EA (1977) Soldiers in politics: military coups and governments. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  41. Nunn J (1976) The middle-class military coup revisited. In: Lowenthal AF (ed) Armies and politics in Latin America. Holmes & Meier, New York/London, pp 49–86Google Scholar
  42. Nunn F (1983) Yesterday’s soldiers: European military professionalism in South America: 1890–1940. University of Nebraska Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  43. Nunn F (1995) The South American military and re (democratization): professional thought and self-perception. J Interam Stud World Aff 37(2):1–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. O’Donnell G (1973) Modernization and bureaucratic authoritarianism: studies in South American politics. University of California Institute of International Studies, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  45. O’Donnell G (1986) Modernization and military coups: theory comparison and the Argentine case. In: Lowenthal A, Fitch S (eds) Armies and politics in Latin America. Holmes and Meier, New York, pp 96–133Google Scholar
  46. O’Donnell G, Schmitter PC (1986) Transitions from authoritarian rule–tentative conclusions about uncertain democracies. The Johns Hopkins University PressGoogle Scholar
  47. Perlmutter A (1977) The military and politics in modern times. On professionals, praetorians, and revolutionary soldiers. Yale University Press, New Haven/LondonGoogle Scholar
  48. Pion-Berlin D (1990) Retreat to the barracks: recent studies on military withdrawal from power. J Interam Stud World Aff 32(1):137–145Google Scholar
  49. Powell J (2012) Determinants of the attempting and outcome of coups d’etat. J Conflict Res 56(6):1017–1040Google Scholar
  50. Rueschemeyer D, Huber Stephens E, Stephens JD (1992) Capitalist development and democracy. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  51. Silva P (2001) The soldier and the state in South America: essays in civil-military relations. Palgrave, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sivard RL (1986) World military and social expenditures. World Priorities, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  53. Skidmore TE (1988) The politics of military rule in Brazil. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Stepan AC (1971) The military in politics: changing patterns in Brazil. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  55. Sundhaussen U (1984) Military withdrawal from government responsibility. Armed Forces Soc 10(4):543–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thompson WR (1973) The grievances of military coup-makers. Sage, Beverly HillsGoogle Scholar
  57. Thompson WR (1975) Regime vulnerability and the military coup. Comp Polit 7:459–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Verney S, Couloumbis T (1991) State-International systems interaction and the Greek transition to democracy in the Mid-1970s. In G Pridham (ed) Encouraging democracy: the international context of regime transition in Southern Europe. Leicester University Press, Leicester, UKGoogle Scholar
  59. Wiking S (1983) Military coups in sub-Saharan Africa: how to justify illegal assumptions of power. Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  60. Zimmermann E (1983) Political violence, crises and revolutions: theories and research. Hall, BostonGoogle Scholar
  61. Zuk G, Thompson WR (1982) The post-coup military spending question: a pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. Am Polit Sci Rev 76(1):60–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political Science and International RelationsFenerbahçe UniversityİstanbulTurkey