Professionalism and Professionalization in Russia

  • Roman Abramov
  • Elena Iarskaia-Smirnova
Living reference work entry

Later version available View entry history




Professionalizationmay be considered in several dimensions. First, as a positive and progressive force that fosters social change in ways that minimize social conflict and disintegration. Second, as a complex historic process, a connected sequence of events, as a result of which an occupation acquires a certain set of attributes. Third, as a professional socialization in workplaces, relationships in the everyday life of occupations, and their meanings in working routine and in wider contexts. Fourth, as the project whereby a distinct occupational group seeks to gain a monopoly control of competence and credibility with the public and, as a result, to secure an increase in income, power, and prestige. Fifth, as wide changes...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Abbot A (2005) Linked ecologies: states and universities as environments for professions. Sociol Theory 23(3):245–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbott AD (1988) The system of professions: essay on the division of expert labour. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  3. Abramov RN (2016) Understanding Professionalism in the Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Russia: an Analytical Review. The American Sociologist 47(1): 81–101Google Scholar
  4. Alekseeva L, Goldberg P (1990) The thaw generation: coming of age in the post-Stalin Era. University of Pittsburgh Press, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashwin, Sarah (1999) Russian workers : the anatomy of patience Manchester University Press, Manchester, UKGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashwin S (2000) Introduction: gender, state and society in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. In: Ashwin S (ed) Gender, state and society in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. Routledge, London/New York, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  7. Bailes KE (1996) Reflections on Russian Professions. In: Balzer HD (ed) Russia’s missing middle class: the professions in Russian history. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk/London, pp 39–54Google Scholar
  8. Balzer HD (1996) The engineering profession in Tsarist Russia. In: Balzer HD (ed) Russia’s missing middle class: the professions in Russian history. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk/London, pp 55–58Google Scholar
  9. Becker EM (2011) Medicine, law, and the state in Imperial Russia. CEU Press, BudapestCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bronfenbrenner U (1986) Ecology of the family as a context for human development. Dev Psychol 22(6):723–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown K (2013) Plutopia: nuclear families, atomic cities, and the Great Soviet and American Plutonium Disasters. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  12. Burton C (2007) Zdravookhranenie v period pozdnego stalinisma i dukh poslevoennogo gosudarstva blagodenstviia, 1945–1953 gody [Public Health in the Period of Late Stalinism and the ghost of the Postwar Welfare State, 1945–53]. Zhurnal issledovanii sotsial’noi politiki [Journal of Social Policy Studies] 5(4):541–558Google Scholar
  13. Chirikova A (1998) Zhenshchina vo glave firmy [Woman as a head of a firm]. Institute of Sociology RAS, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  14. Dalli C (2010) Towards the re-emergence of a critical ecology of the early childhood profession in New Zealand. Contemp Issues Early Childhood 11(1). Accessed 20 Feb 2017.
  15. Dalli C, Miller L, Urban M (2012) Early childhood grows up towards a critical ecology of the profession. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Evetts J (2003) Sociological analysis of professionalism. Occupational change in modern world. Int Sociol 18(2):395–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Filtzer D (1994) Soviet workers and the collapse of Perestroika: the Soviet labour process and Gorbachev’s reforms, 1985–1991. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  18. Fitzpatrick S (1979) Stalin and the making of a new Elite, 1928–1939. Slav Rev 38:377–402Google Scholar
  19. Freeze GL (1992) Between estate and profession: the Clergy in Imperial Russia. In: Bush ML (ed) Social orders and social classes in Europe since 1500: studies in social stratification. Longman, Harlow, pp 47–65Google Scholar
  20. Gerovitch, S. (2015) Soviet space mythologies: public images, private memories, and the making of a cultural identity. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2015.Google Scholar
  21. Gruzdeva EB, Chertikhina ES (1983) Trud i byt sovetskikh zhenshchin [Labor and everyday life of the Soviet women]. Politizdat, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  22. Harris SE (2013) Communism on tomorrow street mass housing and everyday life after Stalin. Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  23. Hughes EC (1971) The sociological eye. Part III: work and self. Aldine, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  24. Iarskaia-Smirnova E, Abramov R (2016) Professions and professionalisation in Russia. In: Dent M, Bourgeault I, Denis J-L, Kuhlman E (eds) The routledge companion to the professions and professionalism. Routledge, London/New York, pp 280–294Google Scholar
  25. Iarskaia-Smirnova E, Romanov P (2002) “A Salary is not Important Here”: the professionalization of social work in contemporary Russia. Soc Policy Adm 36(2):123–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Josephson PR (1997) New Atlantis revisited: Akademgorodok, the Siberian City of science. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  27. Karila K (2008) A Finnish viewpoint on professionalism in early childhood education, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal 16(2):210–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Knudsen IH (2014) Moonlighting strangers met on the way: the Nexus of informality and blue-collar sociality in Russia. In: Morris J, Polese A (eds) The informal post-socialist economy: embedded practices and livelihoods. Routledge, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Krause EA (1991) Professions and the State in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union: theoretical issues. In: Jones A (ed) Professions and the state: expertise and autonomy in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Temple University, Philadelphia, pp 3–41Google Scholar
  30. Larson, M. (1977) The rise of professionalism: a sociological analysis. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  31. Lipovetsky М (2013) The poetics of ITR discourse: in the 1960s and today. Ab Imperio 1:109–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mankevich DV (2010) O nekotorykh problemakh razvitiya sovetskogo zdravookhraneniya Kaliningradskoj oblasti v kontse 1940-h – seredine 1950-h godov (po materialam oblastnykh arkhivov) [On Some Issues of the Development of the Soviet Health Care in Kaliningradskaya Oblast in the late 1940s – mid–1950-s (on the Materials of Regional Archives)]. Retrospektiva: Vsemirnaya istoriya glazami molodykh issledovatelej, vol. 5, pp. 62–71Google Scholar
  33. McForan DWJ (1988) Glasnost, democracy, and perestroika. Int Soc Sci Rev 63(4):165–174Google Scholar
  34. Mrowczynski, R. (2012) Self-regulation of legal professions in State-Socialism: Poland and Russia Compared. Rechtsgeschichte Leg Hist 20:170–188. Accessed 20 Feb 2017
  35. Podmarkov VG (1973) Vvedenie v promyshlennuyu sotsiologiyu. Sotsial’nye problemy promyshlennogo proizvodstva [Introduction into the industrial sociology. Social problems of industrial production]. Mysl’, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  36. Pomeranz W (1999) “Profession or Estate?” The case of the Russian pre-revolutionary advocatura. SEER 2(77):241–268Google Scholar
  37. Romanov P (1995) Middle management in industrial production in the transition to the market. In: Clarke S (ed) Management and industry in Russia. Formal and informal relations in the period of transition. Edward Elgar, Aldershot/Brookfield, pp 182–211Google Scholar
  38. Ryavec KW (2003) Russian bureaucracy: power and pathology. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  39. Shattenberg S (2011) Inzhenery Stalina: zhizn’ mezhdu tekhnikoi i terrorom v 1930e gody [The Stalin’s Engineers: life between technics and terror in 1930s]. ROSSPEN, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  40. Shchetinina GI (1995) Ideinaia zhizn russkoi intelligentsiI: konets 19 – nachalo XX v. [Intellectual life of the Russian intelligentsia: late 19th – early 20th century]. Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  41. Shepelev, L.E. (1999). Chinovnyi mir v Rossii: 18 – nachalo XX v. [Public officials’ world in Russia: 18th – early 20th century]. StPetersburg: Iskusstvo-SPb, 1999.Google Scholar
  42. Titaev K, Shklyaruk M (2016) Rossiiskii sledovatel’: prizvanie, professia, povsednevnost’ [Russian investigators: vocation, profession, everyday life]. Norma, Moscow, p 2016Google Scholar
  43. Volkov V, Dmitrieva A, Pozdnyakov M, Titaev K (2015) Rossiiskie sud’i: sotsiologicheskoe issledovanie professii [Russian juries: sociological study of the profession]. Norma, MoscowGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyNational Research University ‘Higher School of Economics’MoscowRussia