Skull Base Tumors

  • Mark Calayag
  • Reid Hoshide
  • Joanna Kemp
  • Michael Levy
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Skull base tumors in the pediatric population are relatively rare. However, when they do occur, they can present some unique challenges to the pediatric neurosurgeon due to the complexity of the location at which they arise and the anatomic peculiarities of the pediatric skull base. Here we present the steps to evaluate a skull base tumor and discuss particular tumors that are commonly encountered in more detail. Furthermore, we will describe various approaches to different areas of the skull base, as well as the relevant postoperative therapies.

References

  1. Abolfotoh M, Bi WL, Hong CK, Almefty KK, Boskovitz A, Dunn IF, Al-Mefty O (2015) The combined microscopic-endoscopic technique for radical resection of cerebellopontine angle tumors. J Neurosurg 123(5):1301–1311.  https://doi.org/10.3171/2014.10.JNS141465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Billmire DF, Grosfeld JL (1986) Teratomas in childhood: analysis of 142 cases. J Pediatr Surg 21(6):548–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borba LA, Al-Mefty O, Mrak RE, Suen J (1996) Cranial chordomas in children and adolescents [Case reports review]. J Neurosurg 84(4):584–591.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.1996.84.4.0584CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cass SP, Sekhar LN, Pomeranz S, Hirsch BE, Snyderman CH (1994) Excision of petroclival tumors by a total petrosectomy approach. Am J Otol 15(4):474–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cerullo L, Grutsch J, Osterdock R (1998) Recurrence of vestibular (acoustic) schwannomas in surgical patients where preservation of facial and cochlear nerve is the priority. Br J Neurosurg 12(6):547–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Combs SE, Welzel T, Schulz-Ertner D, Huber PE, Debus J (2010) Differences in clinical results after LINAC-based single-dose radiosurgery versus fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for patients with vestibular schwannomas [Evaluation studies]. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76(1):193–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.01.064CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. de Divitiis E, Cappabianca P, Gangemi M, Cavallo LM (2000) The role of the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach in pediatric neurosurgery [Review]. Childs Nerv Syst 16(10–11): 692–696.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s003810000350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. DeBaun MR, Tucker MA (1998) Risk of cancer during the first four years of life in children from the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome registry [Research support, non-U.S. Gov’t]. J Pediatr 132(3 Pt 1):398–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Desai KI, Nadkarni TD, Goel A, Muzumdar DP, Naresh KN, Nair CN (2000) Primary Ewing’s sarcoma of the cranium [Review]. Neurosurgery 46(1):62–68; discussion 68-69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. El Kababri M, Habrand JL, Valteau-Couanet D, Gaspar N, Dufour C, Oberlin O (2014) Esthesioneuroblastoma in children and adolescent: experience on 11 cases with literature review. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 36(2):91–95.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000000095CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fisch U, Pillsbury HC (1979) Infratemporal fossa approach to lesions in the temporal bone and base of the skull [Case reports]. Arch Otolaryngol 105(2):99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gates GA, Rice DH, Koopmann CF Jr, Schuller DE (1992) Flutamide-induced regression of angiofibroma [Research support, non-U.S. Gov’t]. Laryngoscope 102(6):641–644.  https://doi.org/10.1288/00005537-199206000-00009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Goepfert H, Cangir A, Lee YY (1985) Chemotherapy for aggressive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma [Case reports]. Arch Otolaryngol 111(5):285–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goksu N, Bayazit Y, Kemaloglu Y (1999) Endoscopy of the posterior fossa and dissection of acoustic neuroma [Clinical trial]. J Neurosurg 91(5):776–780.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.1999.91.5.0776CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gripp KW, Scott CI Jr, Nicholson L, McDonald-McGinn DM, Ozeran JD, Jones MC, … Zackai EH (2002) Five additional Costello syndrome patients with rhabdomyosarcoma: proposal for a tumor screening protocol. Am J Med Genet 108(1):80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hartley AL, Birch JM, Marsden HB, Harris M, Blair V (1988) Neurofibromatosis in children with soft tissue sarcoma [Research support, non-U.S. Gov’t]. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 5(1):7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hawkins DB, Luxford WM (1980) Schwannomas of the head and neck in children [Case reports]. Laryngoscope 90(12):1921–1926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Healy JF, Bishop J, Rosenkrantz H (1981) Cranial computed tomography in the detection of dural, orbital, and skull involvement in metastatic neuroblastoma [Case reports]. J Comput Tomogr 5(4):319–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heffelfinger MJ, Dahlin DC, MacCarty CS, Beabout JW (1973) Chordomas and cartilaginous tumors at the skull base. Cancer 32(2):410–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hoch BL, Nielsen GP, Liebsch NJ, Rosenberg AE (2006) Base of skull chordomas in children and adolescents: a clinicopathologic study of 73 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 30(7):811–818.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.pas.0000209828.39477.abCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Jacob HE (1994) Chemotherapy for cranial base tumors [Review]. J Neuro-Oncol 20(3):327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jafek BW, Krekorian EA, Kirsch WM, Wood RP (1979) Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: management of intracranial extension [Case reports research support, non-U.S. Gov’t]. Head Neck Surg 2(2):119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jho HD, Carrau RL (1997) Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery: experience with 50 patients [Clinical trial]. J Neurosurg 87(1):44–51.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.1997.87.1.0044CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kadish S, Goodman M, Wang CC (1976) Olfactory neuroblastoma. A clinical analysis of 17 cases. Cancer 37(3):1571–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kushner BH (2004) Neuroblastoma: a disease requiring a multitude of imaging studies [Review]. J Nucl Med 45(7):1172–1188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lang DA, Neil-Dwyer G, Evans BT, Honeybul S (1998) Craniofacial access in children. Acta Neurochir 140(1):33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee JP, Tsai MS, Chen YR (1993) Orbitozygomatic infratemporal approach to lateral skull base tumors [Case reports]. Acta Neurol Scand 87(5):403–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li FP, Fraumeni JF Jr (1969) Soft-tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome? Ann Intern Med 71(4):747–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lucas JT Jr, Ladra MM, MacDonald SM, Busse PM, Friedmann AM, Ebb DH, … Yock TI (2015) Proton therapy for pediatric and adolescent esthesioneuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 62(9):1523–1528.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maris JM, Hogarty MD, Bagatell R, Cohn SL (2007) Neuroblastoma [Research support, N.I.H., extramural research support, non-U.S. Gov’t review]. Lancet 369(9579):2106–2120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60983-0CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Matsui I, Tanimura M, Kobayashi N, Sawada T, Nagahara N, Akatsuka J (1993) Neurofibromatosis type 1 and childhood cancer [Research support, non-U.S. Gov’t]. Cancer 72(9):2746–2754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mc CL, Harris HE (1955) Neurogenic tumors of the nasal fossa. J Am Med Assoc 157(4):318–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphy ES, Suh JH (2011) Radiotherapy for vestibular schwannomas: a critical review [Review]. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 79(4):985–997.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.10.010CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Nichols AC, Chan AW, Curry WT, Barker FG, Deschler DG, Lin DT (2008) Esthesioneuroblastoma: the massachusetts eye and ear infirmary and massachusetts general hospital experience with craniofacial resection, proton beam radiation, and chemotherapy. Skull Base 18(5):327–337.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1076098CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Ohta S, Yokoyama T, Nishizawa S, Uemura K (1998) Regrowth of the residual tumour after acoustic neurinoma surgery. Br J Neurosurg 12(5):419–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oskouian RJ Jr, Jane JA Sr, Dumont AS, Sheehan JM, Laurent JJ, Levine PA (2002) Esthesioneuroblastoma: clinical presentation, radiological, and pathological features, treatment, review of the literature, and the University of Virginia experience [Review]. Neurosurg Focus 12(5):e4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Park JR, Eggert A, Caron H (2008) Neuroblastoma: biology, prognosis, and treatment [Review]. Pediatr Clin N Am 55(1):97–120., x.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2007.10.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pastore G, Peris-Bonet R, Carli M, Martinez-Garcia C, Sanchez de Toledo J, Steliarova-Foucher E (2006) Childhood soft tissue sarcomas incidence and survival in European children (1978–1997): report from the automated childhood cancer information system project [Research support, non-U.S. Gov’t]. Eur J Cancer 42(13):2136–2149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2006.05.016CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Quezada E, Gripp KW (2007) Costello syndrome and related disorders. Curr Opin Pediatr 19(6):636–644.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0b013e3282f161dcCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Reddy KA, Mendenhall WM, Amdur RJ, Stringer SP, Cassisi NJ (2001) Long-term results of radiation therapy for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Am J Otolaryngol 22(3):172–175.  https://doi.org/10.1053/ajot.2001.23458CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ries LA, Harkins D, Krapcho M, Mariotto A, Miller BA, Feuer EJ, Clegg LX, Eisner MP, Horner MJ, Howlader N, Hayat M (2006) SEER cancer statistics review 1975–2003Google Scholar
  42. Sasaki CT, Lowlicht RA, Astrachan DI, Friedman CD, Goodwin WJ, Morales M (1990) Le fort I osteotomy approach to the skull base [Research support, non-U.S. Gov’t]. Laryngoscope 100(10 Pt 1):1073–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schick B, Kahle G, Hassler R, Draf W (1996) [Chemotherapy of juvenile angiofibroma – an alternative?] [Case Reports]. HNO 44(3):148–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Shahinian HK, Eby JB, Ocon M (2004) Fully endoscopic excision of vestibular schwannomas [Case reports]. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 47(6):329–332.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-830122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Sibley RK, Day DL, Dehner LP, Trueworthy RC (1987) Metastasizing chordoma in early childhood: a pathological and immunohistochemical study with review of the literature [Case reports]. Pediatr Pathol 7(3):287–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Smith AC, Squire JA, Thorner P, Zielenska M, Shuman C, Grant R et al (2001) Association of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome [Case reports]. Pediatr Dev Pathol 4(6):550–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Spacca B, Kandasamy J, Mallucci CL, Genitori L (2010) Endoscopic treatment of middle fossa arachnoid cysts: a series of 40 patients treated endoscopically in two centres [Multicenter study]. Childs Nerv Syst 26(2):163–172.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-009-0952-1CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Steinbok P, Flodmark O, Norman MG, Chan KW, Fryer CJ (1986) Primary Ewing’s sarcoma of the base of the skull [Case reports]. Neurosurgery 19(1):104–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Teo C, Dornhoffer J, Hanna E, Bower C (1999) Application of skull base techniques to pediatric neurosurgery [Case reports review]. Childs Nerv Syst 15(2–3):103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Weber DC, Chan AW, Bussiere MR, Harsh GR 4th, Ancukiewicz M, Barker FG 2nd, … Loeffler JS (2003) Proton beam radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: tumor control and cranial nerve toxicity [Evaluation studies]. Neurosurgery 53(3):577–586; discussion 586-578CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Calayag
    • 1
  • Reid Hoshide
    • 2
  • Joanna Kemp
    • 1
  • Michael Levy
    • 1
  1. 1.Rady Children’s HospitalSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • James Thomas Rutka
    • 1
  1. 1.The Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumour Research CentreThe Hospital for Sick Children, The University of TorontoTorontoUSA

Personalised recommendations