Advertisement

Blood-Sparing Techniques and the Perioperative Management of Blood Losses

  • F. TosiEmail author
  • A. Pusateri
  • S. Mensi
  • R. Garra
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The accurate and appropriate management of blood losses is of paramount importance in the pediatric neurosurgical practice, in particular in the correction of craniosynostosis. Though significant blood losses may be anticipated in case of complex craniosynostoses, also the surgical repair of the simple forms may be weighted by excessive intraoperative bleeding. This may result in severe hemocoagulative complications due to the very young age of the majority of the subjects at the time of the surgical corrective procedure.

References

  1. American Society of Anesthesiologists (1996) More on the changing indications for transfusion of blood components during anesthesia. Anesthesiology 84:498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Perioperative Blood Transfusion and Adjuvant Therapies (2006) Practice guidelines for perioperative blood transfusion and adjuvant therapies: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on perioperative blood trans- fusion and adjuvant therapies. Anesthesiology 105:198–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bolliger D, Tanaka KA (2013) Roles of thromboelastography and thromboelastometry for patient blood management in cardiac surgery. Transfus Med Rev 27:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. D’Ambra MN, Kaplan DK (1995) Alternatives to allogenic blood use in surgery: acute normovolemic hemodilution and preoperative autologous donation. Am J Surg 170(Suppl 6A):49SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dabbous MK, Sakr FR, Malaeb DN (2014) Anticoagulant therapy in pediatrics. J Basic Clin Pharma 5:27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dahmani S, Orliaguet GA, Meyer PG et al (2000) Perioperative blood salvage during surgical correction of craniosynostosis in infants. Br J Anaesth 85:550–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dirkmann D, Hanke AA, Gorlinger K et al (2008) Hypothermia and acidosis synergistically impair coagulation in human whole blood. Anesth Analg 106:1627–1632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fearon JA (2004) Reducing allogenic blood trans- fusions during pediatric cranial vault surgical procedures: a prospective analysis of blood recycling. Plast Reconstr Surg 113:1126–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Goldman M, Savard R, Long A et al (2002) Declining value of preoperative autologous. Transfusion 42:819–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goobie SM, Meier PM, Pereira LM et al (2011) Efficacy of tranexamic acid in pediatric craniosynostosis surgery: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Anesthesiology 114:862–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goodnough LT, Shander A (2013) Current status of pharmacologic therapies in patient blood management. Anesth Analg 116:15–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hume HA, Limoges P (2002) Perioperative blood transfusion therapy in pediatric patients. Am J Ther 9:396–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jacobs K, Shoemaker C, Rudersdorf R (1985) Isolation and characterization of genomic and cDNA clones to human erythropoietin. Nature 313:806–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kozek-Langenecker SA (2010) Perioperative coagulation monitoring. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 24:27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lauder GR (2007) Preoperative predeposit autologous donation in children presenting for elective surgery: a review. Transfus Med 17:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Longatti PL, Paccagnella F, Agostini S et al (1991) Autologous hemodonation in the corrective surgery of craniosynostosis. ChNS 7(1):40–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Meneghini L, Zadra N, Aneloni V et al (2003) Erythropoietin therapy and acute preoperative normovolaemic haemodilution in infants undergoing craniosynostosis surgery. Paediatr Anaesth 13:392–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Messmer K (1975) Hemodilution. Surg Clin N Am 55(3):659–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Messmer K, Kreimeier U, Intaglietta M (1986) Present state of intentional hemodilution. Eur Surg Res 18(3–4):254–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mielke LL, Elmar K, Entholzner MD et al (1997) Preoperative acute hypervolemic hemodilution with hydroxyethylstarch: an alternative to acute normovolemic hemodilution? Anesth Analg 84:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Miller BE, Bailey JM, Mancuso TJ et al (1997) Functional maturity of the coagulation system in children: an evaluation using thrombelastography. Anesth Analg 84:745–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Morley SL (2009) Red blood cell transfusions in acute paediatrics. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 94:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Naran S, Cladis F, Fearon J et al (2012) Safety of preoperative erythropoietin in surgical calvarial remodeling: an 8-year retrospective review and analysis. Plast Reconstr Surg 130:305e–310eCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Perel P, Roberts I (2011) Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 39(2):386–391Google Scholar
  25. Pietrini D (2013) Intraoperative management of blood loss during craniosynostosis surgery. Pediatr Anesth 23:278–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pietrini D, Ciano F, Forte E, Tosi F, Zanghi F, Velardi F, Di Rocco C, Chiaretti A, Caresta E, Piastra M (2005) Sevoflurane-remifentanil vs isoflurane-remifentanil for the surgical correction of craniosynostosis in infant. Paediatr Anaesth 15(8):653–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rees P, Grech V (2000) Perioperative anticoagulation for children with prosthetic mechanical valves. Images Paediatr Cardiol 2(2):41–42PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Secher EL, Stensballe J, Afshari A (2013) Transfusion in critically ill children: an ongoing dilemma. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 57:684–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shander A, Ozawa S, Gross I et al (2013) Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: friends or foes? Transfusion 53:1867–1872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Simpson E, Lin Y, Stanworth S et al (2012) Recombinant factor VIIa for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in patients without haemophilia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 14(3):CD005011Google Scholar
  31. Spivak JL (1994) Recombinant human erythropoietin and its role in transfusion medicine. Transfusion 34(1):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stephenson JR, Axelrad AA, McLeod DL (1971) Induction of colonies of hemoglobin- synthesizing cells by erythropoietin in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 68:1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. The American Medical Association (2012) Proceedings from the National Summit On Overuse. www.ama-assn.org/resourses/doc/cqi/overuse-proceed- ings-paper.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan 2014
  34. Trowborst A, van Woerkens EC, van Daele M et al (1990) Acute hypervolaemic hemodilution to avoid blood transfusion during major surgery. Lancet 24(336):1295–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Van Der Linden P, James M, Mythen M et al (2013) Safety of modern starches used during surgery. Anesth Analg 116:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Velardi F, Di Chirico A, Di Rocco C (1999) Blood savage in craniosynostosis surgery. Childs Nerv Syst 15(11–12):695–710. ReviewCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Waters JH (2004) Indications and contraindications of cell salvage. Transfusion 44(12 Suppl): 40S–44SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. World Health Organization (2010) Sixty-third World Health Assembly WHA63/2010/REC/1, Resolutions and decisions. http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA63-REC1/WHA63_REC1-en.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan 2014

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Institute of AnesthesiologyCatholic University Medical SchoolRomeItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Anaesthesiology and Intensive CareCatholic University of RomeRomeItaly

Section editors and affiliations

  • Concezio Di Rocco
    • 1
  • Federico Di Rocco
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Pediatric NeurosurgeryInternational Neuroscience InstituteHannoverGermany
  2. 2.Service de Neurochirurgie PédiatriqueHôpital Femme Mère Enfant-GHELyonFrance
  3. 3.Centre de Référence Craniosténoses, Université de LyonLyonFrance

Personalised recommendations