DNA Demethylation and Epigenetics

Living reference work entry

Abstract

Epigenetic regulation is essential to gene expression programs necessary for normal embryonic development and maintaining cell functions throughout life. DNA methylation on cytosine nucleotides dictates those gene expression programs. However, the steady state levels and patterns of DNA methylation are maintained through the dynamic balance of DNA methylation and demethylation, and changing either side of the balance will certainly lead to the development of disease. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss recent advances on DNA demethylation and the implications in health and disease.

Keywords

5caC 5fC 5hmC AID Apobec Ascorbic acid BER DNA demethylation DNA repair DNMT1 DNMT3a DNMT3b IDH Somatic hypermutation TDG TET UNG 

List of Abbreviations

5caC

5-carboxylcytosine

5fC

5-formylcytosine

5hmC

5-hydroxymethylcytosine

5mC

5-methylcytosine

AA

Ascorbic Acid

AID

Activation induced cytidine deaminase

AP site

Apurinic/apyrimidinic site, or abasic site

Apobec

Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like

BER

Base excision repair

CRISPR/CAS9

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated system 9

DNMT1

DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1

DNMT3A

DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A

DNMT3B

DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3B

IDH

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

MMR

DNA mismatch repair

SHM

Somatic hypermutation

TDG

Thymine DNA glycosylase

TET

Ten eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenases

UNG

Uracil DNA glycosylase

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fudan University Shanghai Cancer CenterShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Division of HematologyMayo Clinic, College of MedicineRochesterUSA

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