Functional Dystonias

  • Jessica PruenteEmail author
  • Deborah Gaebler-Spira
Living reference work entry

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Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions resulting in twisting movements and abnormal postures. This movement disorder can cause significant impairments during functional tasks including gait, mobility, and reaching. Dystonia must be distinguished from other hypertonic movement disorders, spasticity, and rigidity, to guide treatment and management options. Several clinical measurement scales have been developed to identify dystonia and rate its severity; these can be easily adapted for use in motion analysis labs. Additionally, the use of motion analysis kinetics, kinematics, and surface EMG has increased in use for monitoring dystonia. This chapter will discuss the common etiologies of dystonia, clinical scales used for diagnosis and efficacy of treatments, and the role of instrumented gait analysis, kinetics, and kinematics in the evaluation of dystonia.


Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale Co-contraction Dystonia Gait analysis Hyperkinetic Hypertonia asessment tool Involuntary movements Kinematics Motion analysis Movement disorder Overflow muscle activation Spasms 

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shirley Ryan Ability LabChicagoUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Freeman Miller
    • 1
  1. 1.duPont Hospital for ChildrenWilmingtonUSA

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