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Eddy Current Testing

  • Zhenmao ChenEmail author
  • Cherdpong Jomdecha
  • Shejuan Xie
Living reference work entry

Abstract

In various NDT methods, eddy current testing (ECT) technique is widely used for surface and near surface defect inspection, and characterization of electrical conductive materials. This chapter gives brief introduction of theories and applications of advanced ECT, with emphases on the probe design and numerical simulation methods. The chapter moves from short historical and status reviews of the ECT technique, a basic understanding of ECT principles, to state of the art of the testing method in the first section. As bases of ECT numerical simulation methods, theories of electromagnetics related to the advanced ECT is presented in section “Theory of Electromagnetics for ECT Problem”. The topics include basic equations of the low frequency electromagnetic field, skin effect and standard depth of penetration in ECT, and sensitivity and influence factors in ECT inspection. In section “Numerical Methods for Eddy Current Testing”, numerical methods for the three-dimensional ECT problem are described in terms of the A-ϕ, Ar formulations, and FEM and BEM methods. In addition, the equations for calculating ECT signals from the eddy current field are described based on the Biot-Savart’s law and the reciprocity principle at the end of the section. Due to advancement in ECT probe design and optimization, in section “Design and Optimization of ECT Probes”, typical types of ECT probes and magnetic field sensors are introduced. Later, numerical designs of various ECT probes are presented. Furthermore, a phenomenological strategy based on a simplified relationship between the source magnetic field and the induced eddy current is described for evaluation of crack-probe interaction and detectability of ECT probes. At the end of the section, procedures for optimal design of advanced ECT probes for crack detection are given. In section “Applications of Advanced Numerical Analysis for ECT”, progress in forward and inverse numerical techniques and schemes for simulation of ECT problems are explained in detail. Specific numerical approaches are utilized for the ECT signal simulation and crack profile reconstruction by using a deterministic optimization method, an artificial intelligent method, and stochastic optimization methods. The chapter gives good reference for studentsand researchers in the field of ECT and computational electromagnetics.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures Shaanxi ERC for NDT and Structural Integrity Evaluation School of AerospaceXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXianChina

Section editors and affiliations

  • Nathan Ida
    • 1
  • Norbert Meyendorf
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of AkronAkronUSA
  2. 2.Center for Nondestructive EvaluationIowa State UniversityAmesUSA

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