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Neonatology pp 2323-2335 | Cite as

Neuromuscular Disorders in Newborns

  • Salvatore Grosso
  • Silvia Ferranti
Reference work entry

Abstract

Neuromuscular disorders (NDs) are important causes of neonatal weakness and hypotonia. They are pathogenetically related to primitive disorders of the motor unit. They can be acquired or genetically determined, and inherited according to various models of inheritance. NDs with neonatal onset have great clinical variability in severity ranging from fatal to mild pictures. Weakness, generalized or localized to a peculiar district (i.e., facial muscles), and hypotonia are cardinal features. Diagnostic workup includes serum creatine kinase level analysis, motor nerve conduction investigation, electromyography, and muscle biopsy. In neonates indications for muscle biopsy should be carefully evaluated as several limitations there exist. It could be considered in those patients in whom diagnosis is still lacking in spite of several laboratory investigations.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular Medicine and DevelopmentUniversity of SienaSienaItaly

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