Neonatal seizures affect 1–3 infants per 1000 newborns in the general population. The incidence of neonatal seizures is higher in preterm infants than in term infants. The most common etiologies of neonatal seizures are perinatal hypoxic-ischemic and hemorrhagic insults, resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, stroke, and intracranial hemorrhages. Since most neonatal seizures occur as a result of perinatal insults, a majority of neonatal seizures emerge during the first 3 days of life. Infants with suspected seizures should be evaluated immediately. EEG and aEEG/EEG should be recorded early since several studies have shown that clinical recognition of neonatal seizures is not reliable. The prognosis is usually dependent on the underlying condition; the overall mortality is 10–30%, and 30–40% of survivors develop neurodevelopmental sequels with less than 20% developing postnatal epilepsy.