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Neonatology pp 2185-2199 | Cite as

Neuroprotective Strategies for Newborns

  • Bobbi Fleiss
  • Claire Thornton
  • Pierre Gressens
Reference work entry

Abstract

Perinatal brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Such damage can be induced by multiple factors, varies in severity between individuals, affects infants of different genetic backgrounds, and occurs at various stages of the physiological developmental program. This complexity creates innumerable difficulties in creating therapeutic agents. A wealth of experimental studies has engaged in the understanding of brain injury pathophysiology and in the development of strategies that may be beneficial for the neurological outcome of infants. Clinical trials have demonstrated the partial neuroprotective effects of hypothermia and magnesium sulfate in human neonates. Trials for the neuroprotective effects of the pluripotent hormone melatonin are ongoing. In the following chapter we review the experimental and clinical data on neuroprotective strategies.

Abbreviations

AMPA

Alpha-3-amino-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

BBB

Blood brain barrier

CNS

Central nervous system

COX

Cyclooxygenase

EPO

Erythropoietin

iNOS

Inducible form of nitric oxide synthase

KA

Kainate

MMPs

Matrix metalloproteases

NAC

N-Acetylcysteine

NMDA

N-Methyl-d-aspartate

NO

Nitric oxide

NSAIDS

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

rEPO

Recombinant form of erythropoietin

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TBI

Traumatic brain injury

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bobbi Fleiss
    • 1
    • 2
  • Claire Thornton
    • 2
  • Pierre Gressens
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.UMR1141Insem-Paris Diderot University, Hôpital Robert DebréParisFrance
  2. 2.Centre for the Developing Brain, Department of Perinatal Imaging and Health, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical EngineeringKing’s College London, King’s Health Partners, St. Thomas’ HospitalLondonUK

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