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Neonatology pp 1935-1954 | Cite as

Acute and Chronic Renal Failure in the Newborn Infant

  • Jean-Pierre Guignard
  • Uma Sankari Ali
Reference work entry

Abstract

Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most common renal disorders of the newborn. For diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, ARF is divided into three categories: prerenal (functional), renal (intrinsic), and postrenal (obstructive). ARF may be oliguric or non-oliguric, the latter having a better prognosis. Risk factors for ARF include prematurity, respiratory and vascular disorders, heart failure, congenital uropathies, and administration of nephrotoxic drugs. Chemical analysis of urine and ultrasounds help to differentiate the different forms of ARF. Conservative management of prerenal forms of ARF consists in carefully maintaining fluid and electrolyte balances. Early relief of obstruction is mandatory in severe postrenal forms. Renal replacement therapy is necessary when ARF is secondary to intrinsic renal damage: peritoneal dialysis is the treatment of choice. In newborn infants with chronic renal failure, strict control of electrolyte disorders and anemia as well as adequate nutrition is essential. Overall prognosis of ARF and outcome of CRF are still a source of concern.

Abbreviations

ARF

Acute renal failure

CRF

Chronic renal failure

GRF

Glomerular filtration rate

RRT

Renal replacement therapy

ELBW

Extremely low birth weight

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lausanne University Medical SchoolLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Nephrology Division and PICUBJ Wadia Hospital for ChildrenMumbaiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Michael Weindling
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.University of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Department of Women’s and Children’s HealthInstitute of Translational MedicineLiverpoolUK
  3. 3.Liverpool Women’s HospitalLiverpoolUK

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