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Neonatology pp 1295-1329 | Cite as

Gastrointestinal Malformations of Newborns

  • Marcello Dòmini
Reference work entry

Abstract

The gastrointestinal tract may be subject to a variety of congenital abnormalities that arise during embryological development. The most important malformations can mainly be due to «underdevelopment» of the midgut (atresias or stenosis), to «overdevelopment» (intestinal duplications), to defects of the abdominal wall (Omphalocele and Gastroschisis), to anomalies of intestinal rotation and fixation, to persistence of embryonic structures (Meckel's diverticulum) or to abnormal formation of cellular components (e.g. nerves in Hirschsprung's disease). These disorders primarily result in symptoms of intestinal obstruction. Prenatal diagnosis is very important and to detect them the correct examination of the fetal gastrointestinal tract includes the visualization of the stomach, the small and large bowel, the abdominal wall and the insertion of the umbilical cord. The ability to diagnose these malformations prenatally is influenced by the site of obstruction, the presence of associated anomalies, and the gestational age at the time of imaging. In this chapter, we discuss and illustrate a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies affecting the gastrointestinal tract, their clinical symptoms, diagnosis and surgical therapies.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.U.O. di Chirurgia pediatrica – Ospedale S.OrsolaUniversità degli Studi – Alma Mater Studiorumdi BolognaItaly

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