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Neonatology pp 503-534 | Cite as

Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Newborns

  • Arieh Riskin
  • Carlo Agostoni
  • Raanan Shamir
Reference work entry

Abstract

The chapter will discuss the different elements of the developmental physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, including organogenesis, vascularization, neural control, and host defense mechanisms. The development of gastrointestinal motility and of the digestive and absorptive functions and how they relate to feeding and nutrition of the preterm and term neonates will be outlined. Aspects of morphology, physiology, and biochemistry of the developing gastrointestinal tract as well as more recent findings at the molecular biology level will be discussed. Application of this basic knowledge on intestinal functional development should be used in order to improve nutrition for preterm infants and prevent short- and long-term morbidities that may be related to inadequate or poor feeding and nutrition:
  1. (A)

    Development of the gastrointestinal tract – organogenesis and function

     
  2. (B)

    Vascularization

     
  3. (C)

    Neural control of motor function and gastrointestinal motility

     
  4. (D)

    Digestion and absorption

     
  5. (E)

    Host defense

     
  6. (F)

    Gastrointestinal hormones and peptides (These are discussed in  Chap. 35, “Hormones and Gastrointestinal Function of Newborns”)

     

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeonatologyBnai Zion Medical Center, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Pediatric Clinic, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community HealthUniversity of Milan Fondazione, IRCCS Ca Granda, Ospedale Maggiore PoliclinicoMilanoItaly
  3. 3.Institute of Gastroenterology Nutrition and Liver Diseases, Schneider Children’s Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel-Aviv UniversityPetach-TikvaIsrael

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