Advertisement

Development and General Characteristics of Preterm and Term Newborn

  • Domenico Arduini
  • Gaia Pasquali
  • Stefano Parmigiani
  • Daniela Gianotti
  • Giulio Bevilacqua
Reference work entry

Abstract

The embryonic phase is a critical stage of development. Fetal growth is mostly influenced by maternal, uteroplacental factors, as well as genetic and environmental factors. During pregnancy, noninvasive screening tests are used to evaluate a baby’s health. Severe acute or chronic intrauterine hypoxic stress in utero are responsible for compromised circulation, organ dysfunction, and threaten survival or intact survival. The objective of modern obstetrics is the accurate detection of suboptimal fetal growth. Currently, sonography plays a critical role in providing a reliable estimate of fetal biometry, thus confirming the clinical suspicion of growth restriction and substantially influencing pregnancy management. Preterm birth, defined as birth at less than 37 weeks of gestation, is the main determinant of adverse infant outcome in terms of both survival and quality of life: the more preterm these infants are, the more serious are the complications. Because of advances in the care of these very vulnerable infants, survival at the earliest gestation is continuosly improving.

References

  1. ACOG (2012) Committee Opinion 545 Noninvasive Prenatal Testing for Fetal AneuploidyGoogle Scholar
  2. ACOG (2013) Committee Opinion No 579: definition of term pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 122(5):1139–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ACOG (2014) Antepartum fetal surveillance. Obstet Gynecol 124:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akolekar R et al (2015) Procedure-related risk of miscarriage following amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 45:16–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albaiges G, Missfelder-Lobos H, Lees C et al (2000) One-stage screening for pregnancy complications by color Doppler assessment of the uterine arteries at 23 weeks’ gestation. Obstet Gynecol 96:559–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alfirevic Z, Mujezinovic F, Sundberg K (2003) Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003252.Google Scholar
  7. Allen LH (2001) Biological mechanisms that might underlie iron’s effects on fetal growth and preterm birth. J Nutr 131:S581–S589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Environmental Health (1997) Noise: a hazard for the fetus and the newborn. Pediatrics 100:724–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderson P, Kleiman C, Lister G, Telner N (2004) Cardiovascular function during development and response to hypoxia. In: Polin R, Fox W, Abman S (eds) Fetal and neonatal physiology. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 645–669Google Scholar
  10. Bamberg C, Kalache KD (2004) Prenatal diagnosis of fetal growth restriction. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 9:387–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bastek LA, Sammel MD, Paré E et al (2008) Adverse neonatal outcomes: examining the risk between preterm, late preterm, and term infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199:367.e1–367.e8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bishop EH (1981) Fetal acceleration test. Am J Obstet Gynecol 141:905–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boers KE et al (2010) Induction versus expectant monitoring for intrauterine growth restriction at term: randomised equivalence trial (DIGITAT). BMJ 341:c7087Google Scholar
  14. Botto LD, Olney RS et al (1996) Chorionic villus sampling and transverse digital deficiencies: evidence for anatomic and gestational-age specificity of the digital deficiencies in two studies. Am J Med Genet 62:173–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bowden AP, Barrett JH, Fallow W, Silman AJ (2001) Women with inflammatory polyarthritis have babies of lower birth weight. J Rheumatol 28:355–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brazelton TB (1984) Neonatal behavioral assesment scale, 2nd edn. Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Canick JA et al (2013) The impact of maternal plasma DNA fetal fraction on next generation sequencing tests for common fetal aneuploidies. Prenatal Diagnosis 33:667–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christian P, Khatry SK, Katz J et al (2003) Effects of alternative maternal micronutrient supplements on low birth weight in rural Nepal: double blind randomised community trial. BMJ 326:571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clapp JF (2003) The effects of maternal exercise on fetal oxygenation and feto-placental growth. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 110(Suppl 1):S80–S85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cressens P, Huppi PS (2006) The CNS: hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. In: Fanaroff AA, Martin R, Walsh MC (eds) Neonatal-perinatal medicine. Mosby, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  21. Cruz-Martínez R et al. (2011) Fetal brain doppler to predict cesarean delivery for nonreassuring fetal status in term small-for-gestational-age fetuses. Obstet Gynecol 117(3):618–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DeVore GR (2015) The importance of the cerebroplacental ratio in the evaluation of fetal well-being in SGA and AGA foetuses. Am J Obstet Gynecol 213(1):5–15Google Scholar
  23. Doctor BA et al (2001) Perinatal correlates and neonatal outcomes of small for gestational age infants born at term gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185:652–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eixarch E et al (2008) Neurodevelopmental outcome in 2-year-old infants who were small-for-gestational age term fetuses with cerebral blood flow redistribution. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 32:894–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Engle A, Tomashek KM, Wallman C, Committee on Fetus and Newborn (2007) ‘Late preterm’ infants: a population at risk. Pediatrics 120:1390–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ferrazzi E, Rigano S, Bozzo M et al (2000) Umbilical vein blood flow in growth-restricted fetuses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 16:432–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Figueras F, Eixarch E, Gratacos E, Gardosi J (2008a) Predictiveness of antenatal umbilical artery Doppler for adverse pregnancy outcome in small-for-gestational-age babies according to customised birthweight centiles: population-based study. BJOG 115:590–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Figueras F et al (2008b) Small-for-gestational-age fetuses with normal umbilical artery Doppler have suboptimal perinatal and neurodevelopmental outcome. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 136:34–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Figueras F et al (2009) Neurobehavior in term, small-forgestational age infants with normal placental function. Pediatrics 124:e934–e941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fowden AL, Forhead AJ (2004) Endocrine mechanisms of intrauterine programming. Reproduction 127:515–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ghi T et al (2016) Customized fetal growth charts for parents’ characteristics, race, and parity by quantile regression analysis. J Ultrasound Med 35:e35–e44Google Scholar
  32. Graven SN (2004) Early neurosensory visual development of the fetus and newborn. Clin Perinatol 31:199–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Holditch-Davis D, Blackburn ST, Vandenberg K (2003) Newborn and infant neurobehavioural development. In: Kenner C, Wright Lott J (eds) Comprehensive neonatal nursing: a physiological perspective, 3rd edn. WB Saunders, St Louis, pp 236–284Google Scholar
  34. Hooper SB, Binder-Heschl C, Polglase GR et al (2016) The timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth: physiological considerations. Maternal Health Neonatol Perinatol 2:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ianniruberto A, Tajani E (1981) Ultrasonographic study of fetal movements. Semin perinatol 5:175–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kliman HJ (2000) Uteroplacental blood flow. The story of decidualization, menstruation, and trophoblast invasion. Am J Pathol 157:1759–1768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kramer MS, Kakuma R (2003) Energy and protein intake in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000032Google Scholar
  38. Krampl E, Lees C, Bland JM et al (2000) Fetal biometry at 4300 m compared to sea level in Peru. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 16:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kurjak A, Tikvica A, Stanojevic M et al (2008) The assessment of fetal neurobehavior by three-dimensional and four-dimensional ultrasound. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 21:675–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Leguizamon G, von Stecher F (2003) Third trimester glycemic profiles and fetal growth. Curr Diab Rep 3:323–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Liston R, Sawchuck D, Young D (2007) Fetal health surveillance: antepartum and intrapartum consensus guideline. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 29:909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Macones GA, Hankins GD, Spong CY, Hauth J, Moore T (2008) The 2008 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop report on electronic fetal monitoring: update on definitions, interpretation, and research guidelines. Obstet Gynecol 112:661–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McCowan LM, Harding JE, Stewart AW (2000) Umbilical artery Doppler studies in small for gestational age babies reflect disease severity. BJOG 107:916–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McCowan LM, Pryor J, Harding JE (2002) Perinatal predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in small-for-gestational-age children at 18 months of age. Am J Obstet Gynecol 186:1069–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McGaw T (2002) Periodontal disease and preterm delivery of low-birth-weight infants. J Can Dent Assoc 68:165–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Nicolaides KH (2004) Nuchal translucency and other first-trimester sonographic markers of chromosomal abnormalities. Am J Obstet Gynecol 191:45–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Noori S, Friedlich P, Seri I (2004) Pathophysiology of shock in the fetus and newborn. In: Polin R, Fox W, Abman S (eds) Fetal and neonatal physiology. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 772–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Oros D et al (2010) Middle versus anterior cerebral artery Doppler for the prediction of perinatal outcome and neonatal neurobehavior in term small-for-gestational-age fetuses with normal umbilical artery Doppler. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 35:456–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Palomaki GE et al (2011) DNA sequencing of maternal plasma to detect down syndrome: an international clinical validation study. Genet Med 13:913–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Parmigiani S, Corona MF (2016) Capitolo 28. Promozione dell’allattamento al seno. In: Felis S, Parmigiani S (eds) Il parto. Edi-Ermes Publisher, Milan, pp 359–372Google Scholar
  51. Petrini JR, Dias T, Mc Cormick MC et al (2009) Increased risk of adverse neurological development for late preterm infants. J Pediatr 154:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Philipps A (2004) Oxygen consumption and general carbohydrate metabolism of the fetus. In: Polin R, Fox W, Abman S (eds) Fetal and neonatal physiology. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 465–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Picciano MF (2003) Pregnancy and lactation: physiological adjustments, nutritional requirements and the role of dietary supplements. J Nutr 133:1997S–2002SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Practice Bulletin No. 162 (2016 May) Prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders. Obstet Gynecol 127(5):e108–e122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Prechtl HFR (1974) The behavioral states of the newborn infant: a review. Brain Res 76:1304–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rabi Y, Singhal N, Nettel-Aguirre A (2011) Room-air versus oxygen administration for resuscitation of preterm infants: the ROAR study. Pediatrics 128:e374–e381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. RCOG (2014) The investigation and management of the small-for-gestational-age fetus. Green top guideline 31- Jan 2014Google Scholar
  58. Rich-Edwards JW, Buka SL, Brennan RT, Earls F (2003) Diverging associations of maternal age with low birthweight for black and white mothers. Int J Epidemiol 32:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rohan AJ, Golombek SG (2009) Hypoxia in the term newborn: part three – sepsis and hypotension, neurologic, metabolic and hematologic disorders. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 34:224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (2002) The investigation and management of the small-for-gestational-age fetus. Evidence-based clinical guideline no. 31. RCOG, London, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  61. Saigal S, Doyle LW (2008) An overview of mortality and sequelae of preterm birth from infancy to adulthood. Lancet 371:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Seri I, Evens J (2001) Controversies in the diagnosis and management of hypotension in the newborn infant. Curr Opin Pediatr 13:116–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Severi FM et al (2002) Uterine and fetal cerebral Doppler predict the outcome of third-trimester small-for-gestational age fetuses with normal umbilical artery Doppler. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 19:225–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sheridan C (2005) Intrauterine growth restriction. Aust Fam Physic 34:717–723Google Scholar
  65. Skomsvoll JF, Baste V, Irgens LM, Ostensen M (2002) The recurrence risk of adverse outcome in the second pregnancy in women with rheumatic disease. Obstet Gynecol 100:1196–1202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Sparks AB et al (2012) Noninvasive prenatal detection and selective analysis of cell-free DNA obtained from maternal blood: evaluation for trisomy 21 and trisomy 18. Am J Obstet Gynecol 206:319 e311–319 e319Google Scholar
  67. Spencer K, Souter V, Tul N, Snijders R, Nicolaides KH (1999) A screening program for trisomy 21 at 10–14 weeks using fetal nuchal translucency, maternal serum free b-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 13:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Spong CY, Mercer BM, D’alton M, Kilpatrick S, Blackwell S, Saade G (2011) Timing of indicated late-preterm and early-term birth. Obstet Gynecol 118:323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tajik P et al (2014) Which intrauterine growth restricted fetuses at term benefit from early labour induction? A secondary analysis of the DIGITAT randomised trial. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 172:20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Task Force on Neonatal Encephalopathy and Cerebral Palsy Staff American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists with American Academy of Pediatrics Staff (2014) Neonatal Encephalopathy and Neurologic Outcome, Second Edition. Obstetrics & Gynecology 123(4): 896–901Google Scholar
  71. Thornton JG, Hornbuckle J, Vail A et al (2004) Infant wellbeing at 2 years of age in the Growth Restriction Intervention Trial (GRIT): multicentred randomized controlled trial. Lancet 364:513–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Volpe JJ (2008) Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: clinical aspects. In: Volpe JJ (ed) Neurology of the newborn. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 400–480Google Scholar
  73. Walter EC, Ehlenbach WJ, Hotchkin DL et al (2009) Low birth weight and respiratory disease in adulthood. A population-based case-control study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:176–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Way W (2006) Recent observations on the regulation of the fetal metabolism of glucose. J Physiol 572:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Winsor EJ et al (1999) Cytogenetic aspects of the Canadian early and mid-trimester amniotic fluid trial (CEMAT). Prenat Diagn 19:620–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wolff PH (1959) Observations on newborn infants. Psychosom Med 21:110–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wolff PH (1966) The causes, controls and organization of behaviour in the neonate. Psychol Issues 5:1–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Wood NS, Marlow N, Costeloe K et al (2000) Neurologic and developmental disability after extremely preterm birth. N Engl J Med 343:378–384. comment 343:429–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wychoff MH, Aziz K, Escobedo M et al (2015) Part 13: neonatal resuscitation. 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation 132(Suppl 2):S543–S560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Xiao R, Sorensen TK, Williams MA, Luthy DA (2003) Influence of pre-eclampsia on fetal growth. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 13:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zimmermann B et al (2012) Noninvasive prenatal aneuploidy testing of chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y, using targeted sequencing of polymorphic loci. Prenat Diagn 32:1233–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zygmunt M, Herr F, Keller-Schoenwetter S et al (2002) Characterization of human chorionic gonadotropin as a novel angiogenic factor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:5290–5296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zygmunt M, Herr F, Munstedt K et al (2003) Angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 110(Suppl 1):S10–S18CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Domenico Arduini
    • 1
  • Gaia Pasquali
    • 1
  • Stefano Parmigiani
    • 2
  • Daniela Gianotti
    • 2
  • Giulio Bevilacqua
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of Rome Tor VergataRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics and NeonatologyEastern Liguria HospitalLa SpeziaItaly

Personalised recommendations