Encyclopedia of Pathology

Living Edition
| Editors: J.H.J.M. van Krieken

Encapsulated Papillary Carcinoma

  • Eliano Cascardi
  • Anna SapinoEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28845-1_4747-1



Encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) was described for the first time in 1969 as a papillary entity arising from the ductal–lobular system, developing in a cyst, and surrounded by a fibrous capsule.

The WHO Working Group, in the fourth edition, considered EPC as a malignant non-invasive neoplastic ductal proliferation with a papillary architecture circumscribed by a fibrous capsule (Lakhani et al. 2012). However, cases of EPC may show invasion.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    EPC is an extremely uncommon type of carcinoma and it accounts less than 2% of all breast cancers (Li et al. 2018).

  • Age

    It generally affects postmenopausal women; the mean age at diagnosis is around 65–70 years (Mogal et al. 2016).

  • Sex

    This malignancy is frequently diagnosed in female patients, but EPCs have also been described in men.

  • Site

    EPC is usually unifocal. It may arise in the larger and more centrally placed ducts, often...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Collins, L. C., Carlo, V. P., Hwang, H., Barry, T. S., Gown, A. M., & Schnitt, S. J. (2006). Intracystic papillary carcinomas of the breast: A reevaluation using a panel of myoepithelial cell markers. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 30, 1002–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Costa, I., Fonseca, D., Lopes, P., Bento, M. J., & Lopes, C. (1998). Intracystic (encysted) papillary carcinoma of the breast: A clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical study. Human Pathology, 29, 1097–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Duprez, R., Wilkerson, P. M., Lacroix-Triki, M., Lambros, M. B., MacKay, A., Hern, R. A., Gauthier, A., Pawar, V., Colombo, P. E., Daley, F., Natrajan, R., Ward, E., MacGrogan, G., Arbion, F., Michenet, P., Weigelt, B., Vincent-Salomon, A., & Reis-Filho, J. S. (2012). Immunophenotypic and genomic characterization of papillary carcinomas of the breast. The Journal of Pathology, 226, 427–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Esposito, N. N., Dabbs, D. J., & Bhargava, R. (2009). Are encapsulated papillary carcinomas of the breast in situ or invasive? A basement membrane study of 27 cases. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 131, 228–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fayanju, O. M., Ritter, J., Gillanders, W. E., Eberlein, T. J., Dietz, J. R., Aft, R., & Margenthaler, J. A. (2007). Therapeutic management of intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast: The roles of radiation and endocrine therapy. The American Journal of Surgery, 194, 497–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hill, C. B., & Yeh, I. T. (2005). Myoepithelial cell staining patterns of papillary breast lesions: From intraductal papillomas to invasive papillary carcinomas. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 123, 36–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kővári, B., Ormándi, K., Simonka, Z., Vörös, A., & Cserni, G. (2018). Apocrine encapsulated papillary carcinoma of the breast: The first reported case with an infiltrative component. Journal of Breast Cancer, 21, 227–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lakhani, S.R., Ellis, I.O., Schnitt, S.J., Tan, P.H., & van de Vijver, M.J.. (2012). WHO classification of tumors of the breast (pp. 106–107). World Health Organization. ISBN-10: 9283224337. Lyon, IARC press.Google Scholar
  9. Lefkowitz, M., Lefkowitz, W., & Wargotz, E. S. (1994). Intraductal (intracystic) papillary carcinoma of the breast and its variants: A clinicopathological study of 77 cases. Human Pathology, 25, 802–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li, X., Xu, Y., Ye, H., Qin, S., Hou, F., & Liu, W. (2018). Encapsulated papillary carcinoma of the breast: A clinicopathological study of 49 cases. Current Problems in Cancer, 42, 291–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mogal, H., Brown, D. R., Isom, S., Griffith, K., & Howard-McNatt, M. (2016). Intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast: A SEER database analysis of implications for therapy. The Breast, 27, 87–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rakha, E. A., Gandhi, N., Climent, F., van Deurzen, C. H., Haider, S. A., Dunk, L., Lee, A. H., Macmillan, D., & Ellis, I. O. (2011). Encapsulated papillary carcinoma of the breast: An invasive tumor with excellent prognosis. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 35, 1093–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Solorzano, C. C., Middleton, L. P., Hunt, K. K., Mirza, N., Meric, F., Kuerer, H. M., Ross, M. I., Ames, F. C., Feig, B. W., Pollock, R. E., Singletary, S. E., & Babiera, G. (2002). Treatment and outcome of patients with intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast. The American Journal of Surgery, 184, 364–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Turahvili, G., Brogi, E., Morrow, M., Hudis, C., Dickler, M., Norton, L., & Wen, H. Y. (2017). The 21-gene recurrence score in special histologic subtypes of breast cancer with favorable prognosis. Breast Cancer Research and Treatement, 165(1), 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Valdes, E. K., Tartter, P. I., Genelus-Dominique, E., Guilbaud, D. A., Rosenbaum-Smith, S., & Estabrook, A. (2006). Significance of papillary lesions at percutaneous breast biopsy. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 13, 480–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Zhang, J., Zhang, T., Wu, N., Zhao, X., Wang, Q., Jiang, Y., Gao, M., & Gu, L. (2018). Intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast: Experience of a major Chinese cancer center. Pathology-Research and Practice, 214, 579–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Unit of PathologyUniversity of BariBariItaly
  2. 2.Unit of PathologyCandiolo Cancer Institute, FPO IRCCSCandioloItaly
  3. 3.Department of Medical SciencesUniversity of TorinoTurinItaly