Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_91-1

Synonyms

TCI

Definition

The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is an instrument for personality assessment that was developed by C. Robert Cloninger to provide a comprehensive biopsychosocial model of personality as it develops within individuals (Cloninger et al. 1993). It deconstructs personality into seven dimensions that vary widely in the general population, rather than focusing only on pathology or abnormal traits (Cloninger 2004). Nevertheless, it was designed to be equally applicable to clinical populations without being stigmatizing or pathologizing. The TCI is based on a biopsychosocial model of complex interactions among genetic, psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual constructs, rather than assuming that personality can be decomposed into independent dimensions (Cloninger and Cloninger 2011; Cloninger and Garcia 2015). The four dimensions of temperament and three dimensions of character measured by the TCI are summarized in Fig. 1.

Keywords

Autobiographical Memory Temperament Dimension Biopsychosocial Model Character Profile Structural Neuroimaging 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Cloninger, C. R. (2004). Feeling good: The science of well-being. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Cloninger, C. R., & Cloninger, K. M. (2011). Person-centered therapeutics. The International Journal of Person Centered Medicine, 1(1), 43–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cloninger, C. R., & Garcia, D. (2015). The heritability and development of positive affect and emotionality. In Genetics of psychological well-being – The role of heritability and genetics in positive psychology (pp. 97–113). New York: Oxford, University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M., & Przybeck, T. R. (1993). A psychobiological model of temperament and gharacter. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 975–990.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cloninger, C. R., Przybeck, T. R., Svrakic, D. M., & Wetzel, R. D. (1994). The temperament and character inventory (TCI): A guide to its development and use. St. Louis: Washington University Center for Psychobiology of Personality.Google Scholar
  6. Garcia, D., Anckarsäter, H., Kjell, O. N. E., Archer, T., Rosenberg, P., Cloninger, C. R., & Sikström, S. (2015). Agentic, communal, and spiritual traits are related to the semantic representation of written narratives of positive and negative life events. Psychology of Well-Being: Theory, Research and Practice, 5, 1–20. doi: 10.1186/s13612-015-0035-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mousavi, F., Rozsa, S., Nilsson, T., Archer, T., Anckarsäter, H., & Garcia, D. (2015). Personality and intelligence: Persistence, not self-directedness, cooperativeness or self-transcendence, is related to twins’ cognitive abilities. Peer J, 3, e1195. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1195.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Blekinge Center of CompetenceKarlskronaSweden
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyLund UniversityLundSweden
  4. 4.Network for Empowerment and Well-BeingLyckebySweden
  5. 5.Anthropedia FoundationSt. LouisUSA
  6. 6.Center for Well-BeingWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Brendan Clark
    • 1
  1. 1.Wichita State UniversityWichitaUSA