Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

The Supernumerary Personality Inventory

  • Ryan Y. HongEmail author
  • Xiang Ling Ong
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_89-1




The SPI measures ten facet-level traits thought to lie beyond the Big Five personality factor space. It is a self-reported instrument comprising 150 items, each to be rated on a 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) Likert-type scale. Completion time is estimated to be 15 min.


The Supernumerary Personality Inventory (SPI; Paunonen 2002) was developed to measure ten facet-level traits that supposedly reside outside the factor space of the well-known Big Five personality dimensions. These ten traits are Conventionality, Seductiveness, Manipulativeness, Thriftiness, Humorousness, Integrity, Femininity, Religiosity, Risk-taking, and Egotism. Brief descriptions of these traits can be found in Hong and Paunonen (2009) and Paunonen et al. (2003). These traits are measured using 150 items (15 items per facet scale) on 5-point Likert-type rating scale.

The motivation behind developing the SPI stems from a debate on the comprehensiveness of the Big Five...


Factor Space Dark Triad Workplace Deviance Counterproductive Behavior Dark Triad Trait 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Section editors and affiliations

  • Brendan Clark
    • 1
  1. 1.Wichita State UniversityWichitaUSA