Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Reflection (Therapeutic Behavior)

  • Kathryn N. Schrantz
  • Alicia Lyon-Limke McLean
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_841-1



Therapeutic reflections are statements used by psychotherapists to restate, paraphrase, or uncover therapy clients’ emotional reactions to situations, thoughts, behaviors, or interpersonal interactions.


Verbal and nonverbal reflections are a major component of psychotherapy. Considered as an active listening technique, reflections serve as an important therapeutic tool. Often, reflections paraphrase or restate clients’ feelings and emotions. Therapists also use reflections to help clients examine previously undiscovered or misunderstood emotional reactions. There are various types of reflections that are used to elicit different reactions from clients. Reflections impact the therapeutic relationship and play a significant role in many therapeutic approaches.

Types of...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathryn N. Schrantz
    • 1
  • Alicia Lyon-Limke McLean
    • 2
  1. 1.Sam Houston State UniversityHuntsvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of Central Oklahoma EdmondEdmondUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Patrizia Velotti
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Educational SciencesUniversity of GenoaGenoaItaly
  2. 2.Sapienza University of RomeRomeItaly