Negative appraisals refer to the process through which people evaluate or appreciate a particular negative encounter in the environment that is relevant to his or her well-being.
Appraisal Theories and the Origin of Negative Appraisals
Although the term of appraisal has been commonly used in the literature for several decades (e.g., Arnold 1960), the controversy regarding the structure and the function of appraisal remains a concern. The present entry will first describe the emergence of the term “negative appraisal” in the literature and propose a clear definition of “negative appraisals.”
Lazarus and Folkman (1984) defined the concept of appraisal as “a process through which the person evaluates whether a particular encounter with the environment is relevant to his or her well-being.” They distinguished between two types of appraisal: a primary appraisal and a secondary appraisal. In a primary appraisal, people evaluate whether they have anything at stake in the encounter...
- Arnold, M. B. (1960). Emotion and personality (2 vols). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Clore, G. L., & Ortony, A. (2001). Appraisal theories how cognition shapes affect into emotion. In M. Lewis, J. A. Haviland-Jones, & L. Feldman Barret (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 628–642). New York: the Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Harwood, D. G., Barker, W. W., Owny, R. L., Bravo, M., Aguero, H., & Duara, R. (2000). Predictors of positive and negative appraisal among Cuban American caregivers of Alzheimer’s disease patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 481–487. https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1166(200006)15:6<481::AID-GPS984>3.0.CO;2-J.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lawton, M. P., Kleban, M. H., & Moss, M. (1989). Measuring caregiving appraisal. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 44, 61–71 https://academic.oup.com/geronj/article-abstract/44/3/P61/595300/Measuring-Caregiving-Appraisal.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Pearlin, L. I., Mullan, J. T., Semple, S. J., & Skaff, M. M. (1990). Caregiving and the stress process: An overview of concepts and their measures. Gerontologist, 30, 583–594 https://academic.oup.com/gerontologist/article-abstract/30/5/583/564941/Caregiving-and-the-Stress-Process-An-Overview.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Roseman, I. J., & Smith, C. A. (2001). Appraisal theory: Overview, assumptions, varieties, controversies. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research (pp. 3–19). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Scherer, K. R. (2001). Appraisal considered as a process of multi-level sequential checking. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research (pp. 92–120). New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Toohey, M. J., Muralidharan, A., Medoff, D., Lucksted, A., & Dixon, L. (2016). Caregiver positive and negative appraisals. Effects of the national alliance on mental illness family-to-family intervention. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 204, 156–159. https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000447.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Zuj, D. V., Palmer, M. A., Gray, K. E., Hsu, C. M. K., Nicholson, E. L., Mahli, G. S., Bryant, R. A., & Felmingham, K. L. (2017). Negative appraisals and fear extinction are independently related to PTSD symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders, 217, 246–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar