Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS)

  • Margaret E. Hertzig
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_476-1

Definition

It can be defined as Study of Temperament during infancy, childhood, adolescence and young adulthood.

Introduction

The New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS), launched by Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess in 1956, marks the beginning of modern interest in the study of temperament. Although the scientific study of temperament is relatively recent, the idea of grouping human beings into basic behavioral types is centuries old. Historically, temperament refers to those biologically based differences between individuals that emerge early in life and are expressed with relative consistency across situations and over time. Galen described four basic temperaments – choleric, melancholic, sanguine, and phlegmatic – attributable to a preponderance of one or another of Hippocrates’s four cardinal humors, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. In the early years of the twentieth century, Kretchmer in Germany and Sheldon in the United States examined the relationship between basic...

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References

  1. Chess, S., & Thomas, A. (1984). Origins and evolution of behavior disorders from infancy to early adulthood. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  2. Chess, S., & Thomas, A. (1990). Continuities and discontinuities in temperament. In L. D. Robins & M. Rutter (Eds.), Straight and devious pathways from childhood to adulthood (pp. 205–220). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Gesell, A. (1942). Infant and child in the culture of today. New York: Harper & Brothers.Google Scholar
  4. Hertzig, M. E. (2012). Temperament then and now. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 200, 659–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development (p. 161). New York: Brunner-Mazel.Google Scholar
  6. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1982). Temperament and follow-up to adulthood. In R. Porter & G. M. Colli (Eds.), Temperamental differences in infants and young children (pp. 168–175). London: Pitman Books Ltd (Ciba Foundation symposium 89).Google Scholar
  7. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1984). Genesis and evolution of behavioral disorders: From infancy to early adult life. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 539–542.Google Scholar
  8. Thomas, A., Chess, S., Birch, H. G., & Hertzig, M. E. (1960). A longitudinal study of primary reaction patterns in children. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1, 103–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Thomas, A., Chess, S., & Birch, H. G. (1968). Temperament and behavior disorders in children. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Thomas, A., Chess, S., Birch, H. G., Hertzig, M. E., & Korn, S. (1963) Behavioral Individuality in Early Childhood. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Weill Cornell MedicineNew YorkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Anna Czarna
    • 1
  1. 1.Jagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland