Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Pavlovian Temperament Survey

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_2284-1


During the first decades of the twentieth century, Russian physiologist and Nobel Prize winner Ivan P. Pavlov conducted a series of experimental studies on classical conditioning in dogs under different kinds of circumstances and on a variety of conditioned reflexes. The long-lasting observation of animal behavior in his laboratory led him to the conclusion that dogs differ in respect of such criteria as the speed of conditioning, the magnitude of reflexes, the ability to inhibit them when required, the efficiency of developing positive and negative conditioned reflexes under different circumstances (e.g., distractors, pharmacological agents), or the ability to react adequately to changing stimuli. To explain these individual differences, he concluded that some properties of the central nervous system (CNS), such as strength of excitation, strength of inhibition, or mobility and balance of nervous processes, are responsible for these differences. In spite of the notion of...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Social Sciences and HumanitiesWarsawPoland
  2. 2.University of WarsawWarsawPoland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Anna Czarna
    • 1
  1. 1.Jagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland