Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Personality and Stress

  • Jennifer N. Baumgartner
  • Tamera R. SchneiderEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_2115-1

Abstract

Although everyone experiences stress, there are aspects of personality that may make some people more vulnerable to stress than others. Personality is characterized by five stable traits. These traits include neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. Of these, neuroticism is most consistently related to negative stress outcomes. This includes evaluating potentially stressful encounters as threats, which in turn promotes negative psychological, physiological, and behavioral responses. Other personality traits, such as openness, promote challenge appraisals and more positive stress responses. Although it is the case that some types of personality influence stress responses, it is important to keep in mind that the situations people find themselves in can also affect stress responses over and above that of personality.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Amirkhan, J. H., Risinger, R. T., & Swicker, R. J. (1995). Extraversion: A “hidden” personality factor in coping? Journal of Personality, 63, 189–212.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1978). The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist, 33, 344–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumgartner, J. N., & Schneider, T. R. (January, 2016). The influence of flow on standard and adaptive performance in teams. Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, San Diego.Google Scholar
  4. Baumgartner, J. N., Schneider, T. R., & Capiola, A. (February, 2015). Being resilient versus building resilience: Optimism, flow, and psychophysiological responses to stress. Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Long Beach.Google Scholar
  5. Blascovich, J., & Tomaka, J. (1996). The biopsychosocial model of arousal regulation. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 28, pp. 1–51). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  6. Block, J., & Kremen, A. M. (1996). IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 349–361.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bromberger, J. T., & Matthews, K. A. (1996). A longitudinal study of pessimism, trait anxiety, and life stress on depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. Psychology and Aging, 11, 207–213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carver, C. S., Pozo, C., Harris, S. D., Noriega, V., Scheier, M. F., Robinson, D. S., et al. (1993). How coping mediates the effect of optimism on distress: A study of women with early stage breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 375–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Connor-Smith, J. K., & Flachsbart, C. (2007). Relations between personality and coping: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 1080–1107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 653–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Esterling, B. A., Antoni, M. H., Fletcher, M. A., Margulies, S., & Schneiderman, N. (1994). Emotional disclosure through writing or speaking modulates latent Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 130–140.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Habra, M. E., Linden, W., Anderson, J. C., & Weinberg, J. (2003). Type D personality is related to cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity to acute stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55, 235–245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Headey, B., & Wearing, A. (1989). Personality, life events, and subjective well-being: Toward a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 731–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kabasa, S. C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality, and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jackson, S., & Schneider, T. R. (2014). Extraversion and stress. In A. D. Haddock & A. P. Rutkowski (Eds.), The psychology of extraversion (pp. 121–131). New York: Nova Publishers.Google Scholar
  16. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  17. Martsh, C. T., & Miller, W. R. (1997). Extraversion predicts heavy drinking in college students. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 153–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five–factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Mischel, W. (1977). On the future of personality measurement. American Psychologist, 32, 246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Penley, J. A., & Tomaka, J. (2002). Associations among acute stress. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1215–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219–247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Schneider, T. R. (2004). The role of neuroticism on psychological and physiological stress responses. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 795–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schneider, T. R., Rench, T. A., Lyons, J. B., & Riffle, R. R. (2011). The influence of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness on stress responses. Stress and Health, 28, 102–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Segerstrom, S. C. (2000). Personality and the immune system: Models, methods, and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 180–190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Vollrath, M. (2000). Personality and hassles among university students: A three-year longitudinal study. European Journal of Personality, 14, 199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vollrath, M. (2001). Personality and stress. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 42, 335–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Wearing, A. J., & Hart, P. M. (1996). Work and non-work coping strategies: Their relation to personality, appraisal and life domain. Stress Medicine, 12, 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wiebe, D. J. (1991). Hardiness and stress modulation: A test of proposed mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 89–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Williams, R. B., Haney, T. L., Lee, K. L., Kong, Y., Blumenthal, J. A., & Whalen, R. E. (1980). Type A behavior, hostility, and coronary atherosclerosis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 42, 539–549.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Zellars, K. L., Perrewé, P. L., & Hochwarter, W. A. (2000). Burnout in health care: The role of the five factors of personality. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 1570–1598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer N. Baumgartner
    • 1
  • Tamera R. Schneider
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Wright State UniversityDaytonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Anna Czarna
    • 1
  1. 1.Jagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland