Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford


  • Katja Wehrle
  • Ulrike FasbenderEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_2001-1



Self-concept can be defined as the totality of a complex, organized, and yet dynamic system of learned attitudes, beliefs, and evaluative judgments that people hold about themselves.


Cogito ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am”), yet “who am I?” This is the fundamental question that, throughout their lives and across diverse contexts, people strive to understand. We are concerned about who we are, who we can become, and how we fit into the environment to function effectively, attain a secured sense of self, and therewith strive for personal goals and development; being confident in ourselves and our actions (Baumeister 1998; Oyserman et al. 2012). May it be the social or cultural context, family life, work, or settings in which people pursue personal responsibilities or interests, people constantly reflect on themselves, their behaviors, and the related outcomes. In doing...

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Work and Organizational PsychologyJustus-Liebig-University GiessenGiessenGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chris Ditzfeld
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA