Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford


  • Laura Wood
  • Zachary C. LaBrot
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1941-1



Although the specific definition varies widely depending on perspective and context, integration broadly refers to the inclusion of diverse individuals across all facets of life. Racial integration in education refers to the legal and political desegregation of schools as well as the fair and equitable treatment of students within schools (Ayscue and Frankenberg 2016).


Research has consistently supported the detrimental effects of segregation and the benefits of racial and socioeconomic integration in the field of education (Bohrnstedt et al. 2015; Borman and Dowling 2010; Rumberger and Palardy 2005). When controlling for student-level variables (e.g., race, socioeconomic status [SES]) and other school-level factors (e.g., size, public vs. private), the racial and socioeconomic diversity of a school is significantly correlated with a student’s academic achievement and likelihood of high school and college graduation (Bohrnstedt...

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Munroe-Meyer InstituteUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chris Ditzfeld
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA