Openness to Experience is a multifaceted personality dimension that is generally associated with a willingness to engage with complex and novel environmental stimuli including ideas, individuals, cultures, sensations, as well as other experiences.
Openness to Experience, one of the Big Five personality traits, is a dimension characterized by a desire to broaden one’s sensory and intellectual experiences by seeking out novelty and challenging information to more deeply examine the human condition. Renowned personality researchers, McCrae and Costa (1997), explain how, “openness is seen in the breadth, depth, and permeability of consciousness, and in the recurrent need to enlarge and examine experience” (p. 826). In recent years, efforts have been made to define openness more stringently, as it can be represented both by an inclination to experience culture and art and the ability to be receptive to...
- Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., & Gupta, R. (2003). Meta-analysis of the relationship between the five-factor model of personality and Holland’s occupational types. Personnel Psychology, 56(1), 45–74. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00143.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bergeman, C.S., Chipuer, H.M., Plomin, R., Pedersen, N.L., McClearn, G.E., Nesselroade, J.R., & … McCrae, R.R. (1993). Genetic and environmental effects on openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness: An adoption/twin study. Journal of Personality, 61(2), 159–179. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1993.tb01030.x.
- Connelly, B. S., Ones, D. S., & Chernyshenko, O. S. (2014). Introducing the special section on openness to experience: Review of openness taxonomies, measurement, and nomological net. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2013.830620.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) AND NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- DeYoung, C.G. (2015). Openness/intellect: A dimension of personality reflecting cognitive exploration. In M. Mikulincer, P. R. Shaver, M. L. Cooper, R. J. Larsen, M. Mikulincer, P. R. Shaver, … R. J. Larsen (Eds.), APA handbook of personality and social psychology, volume 4: Personality processes and individual differences (pp. 369–399). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14343-017.
- Goldberg, L. R. (1999). A broad-bandwidth, public domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models. In I. Mervielde, I. Deary, F. De Fruyt, & F. Ostendorf (Eds.), Personality psychology in Europe (Vol. 7, pp. 7–28). Tilburg: Tilburg University Press.Google Scholar
- Hirsh, J. B., DeYoung, C. G., Xu, X., & Peterson, J. B. (2010). Compassionate liberals and polite conservatives: Associations of agreeableness with political ideology and moral values. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(5), 655–664. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167210366854.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hogan, R., & Hogan, J. (1992). Manual for the Hogan personality inventory. Tulsa: Hogan Assessment Systems.Google Scholar
- Jackson, J. J., Hill, P. L., Payne, B. R., Roberts, B. W., & Stine-Morrow, E. L. (2012). Can an old dog learn (and want to experience) new tricks? Cognitive training increases openness to experience in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 27(2), 286–292. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025918.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kashdan, T. B., Afram, A., Brown, K. W., Birnbeck, M., & Drvoshanov, M. (2011). Curiosity enhances the role of mindfulness in reducing defensive responses to existential threat. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(8), 1227–1232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.02.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kaufman, S. B., Quilty, L. C., Grazioplene, R. G., Hirsh, J. B., Gray, J. R., Peterson, J. B., & DeYoung, C. G. (2016). Openness to experience and intellect differentially predict creative achievement in the arts and sciences. Journal of Personality, 84(2), 248–258. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lüdtke, O., Roberts, B. W., Trautwein, U., & Nagy, G. (2011). A random walk down university avenue: Life paths, life events, and personality trait change at the transition to university life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(3), 620–637. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023743.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- MacLean, K. A., Johnson, M. W., & Griffiths, R. R. (2011). Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 25(11), 1453–1461. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881111420188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McCrae, R. R., & Sutin, A. R. (2009). Openness to experience. In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 257–273). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Nieß, C., & Zacher, H. (2015). Openness to experience as a predictor and outcome of upward job changes into managerial and professional positions. Plos ONE, 10(6), Article e0131115.Google Scholar
- Silvia, P. J., Nusbaum, E. C., Berg, C., Martin, C., & O’Connor, A. (2009). Openness to experience, plasticity, and creativity: Exploring lower-order, high-order, and interactive effects. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 1087–1090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2009.04.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Silvia, P. J., Fayn, K., Nusbaum, E. C., & Beaty, R. E. (2015). Openness to experience and awe in response to nature and music: Personality and profound aesthetic experiences. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(4), 376–384. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Specht, J., Egloff, B., & Schmukle, S. C. (2011). Stability and change of personality across the life course: The impact of age and major life events on mean-level and rank-order stability of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(4), 862–882. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024950.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Volkow, N.D., Gur, R.C., Wang, G., Fowler, J.S., Moberg, P.J., Ding, Y., & … Logan, J. (1998). Association between decline in brain dopamine activity with age and cognitive and motor impairment in healthy individuals. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(3), 344–349.Google Scholar
- Woo, S. E., Chernyshenko, O. S., Longley, A., Zhang, Z., Chiu, C., & Stark, S. E. (2014a). Openness to experience: Its lower level structure, measurement, and cross-cultural equivalence. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96(1), 29–45. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2013.806328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar