Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Interpersonal Reactivity Index

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1234-1



The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis 1980, 1983, 1996) is a self-report measure of dispositional empathy. The IRI contains four subscales including perspective taking, fantasy, empathetic concern, and personal distress.


The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis 1980, 1983, 1996), developed by Mark Davis, measures dispositional empathy as a set of four separate but related dimensions (Davis 1996). Thus, the IRI takes a multidimensional approach to measuring individual differences in empathy by assessing both cognitive and perspective-taking capabilities as well as emotional reactivity (Davis 1980). While previous research had focused on either emotional or cognitive aspects of empathy, the IRI was specifically designed to assess both concepts by measuring separate but related dispositional tendencies to be responsive to others (Davis 1983). It should be noted that the IRI is...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyOakland UniversityRochesterUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ashton C. Southard
    • 1
  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA