Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI)

  • Stephen D. Benning
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1098-1



The PPI is an inventory that cleaves psychopathy into orthogonal processes without explicit reference to antisocial behavior.


The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) was designed to comprehensively assess the personality features associated with psychopathy without requiring respondents to endorse specific antisocial behaviors (Lilienfeld and Andrews 1996). This approach contrasts with previous attempts to assess psychopathy through self-report, which did not correlate strongly with each other and measured various forms of antisocial behavior to the neglect of the disorder’s core personality traits.

Factor Structure and Refinement

The PPI contains 187 items that largely aggregate into eight factor-analytically derived scales, seven of which often fall under two higher-order factors (Benning et al. 2003). The fearless dominance factor comprises three scales that together index a lack of fear and...

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  1. Benning, S. D., Patrick, C. J., Hicks, B. M., Blonigen, D. M., & Krueger, R. F. (2003). Factor structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory: Validity and implications for clinical assessment. Psychological Assessment, 15(3), 340–350. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.15.3.340.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Nevada, Las VegasLas VegasUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Beth A. Visser
    • 1
  1. 1.Lakehead UniversityOrilliaCanada