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Sweeteners pp 225-243 | Cite as

The Role of Dietary Sugars and Sweeteners in Metabolic Disorders and Diabetes

  • Motahar Heidari-BeniEmail author
  • Roya Kelishadi
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Sugar consumption has dramatically increased worldwide. A growing body of evidence suggests that sugars might have various adverse health effects. High intake of sugars may be related with an increased risk of several disorders including dental caries, obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, gout, fatty liver disease, some cancers, components of the metabolic syndrome, and hyperactivity. Added sugar in processed foods are used to sweeten, to increase the flavour, to change the freezing or melting point or to protection of food spoilage. It is better to consume sugars in natural foods, since these foods provide useful micronutrients. Nowadays, there are questions as to whether excessive consumption of sugars, especially processed foods, might be correlated with metabolic syndrome or diabetes. However, insufficient study design, variety in evaluating dietary intake, contradictory findings and several definitions of sugars have inhibited definitive conclusions regarding these associations. However, limiting added sugars and monitoring carbohydrate consumption are serious strategy for keeping healthy weights and achieve glycemic control. This chapter describe different types of sweeteners in foods and beverages, as well as their effects on diabetes and metabolic disease. In addition, this chapter describes underlying mechanisms of sweeteners on health outcomes and how various types of sweeteners may threaten health.

Keywords

Sweeteners Non-nutritive sweeteners Sugar sweetened beverage High-fructose corn syrup Diabetes Metabolic syndrome 

Abbreviations

FAO

Food and agriculture organization

GI

Glycaemic index

GL

Glycemic load

GLP

Glucagon-like peptide-1

GLUT

Sodium-glucose transport proteins

HFCS

High fructose corn syrup

HPFS

Health professionals follow-up study

IMP

Inosine monophosphate

KHK

ketohexokinase

NHS

Nurses’ health study

NNS

Non-nutritive sweeteners

NS

Natural sweeteners

SSB

Sugar-sweetened beverages

T1R

Taste receptors type 1

XO

Xanthine oxidase

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non Communicable DiseaseIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran

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