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Boiling in Reagent and Polymeric Solutions

  • Raj M. Manglik
Reference work entry

Abstract

Multiphase interfaces and the convective mass, momentum, and heat transport across their boundaries fundamentally govern boiling heat transfer. This interfacial activity is further altered and is quite complex in reagent and polymeric aqueous solutions. At the gas-liquid-solid boundaries, wetting at the liquid-solid interface is modified by physisorption of solute, and the liquid-vapor interfacial tension displays a time-dependent behavior due to solute adsorption. At the microscale, the transient transport of surface-active additives (reagents or polymers) in the liquid modulates dynamically the solid-liquid-vapor interfaces during nucleation and subsequent vapor bubble growth dynamics. This essentially characterizes macroscale heat transport and the ebullient signature of boiling. The molecular characteristics of reagents thus affect and control this process; in fact, surface wetting and surface tension can be decoupled. An overview of the current state of the art of boiling with reagents and polymers is presented in this chapter. Particular emphasis is given to the role of microscale interfacial changes on boiling heat transfer, which are triggered at the molecular scale by the adsorption-desorption of the soluble additive at the liquid-vapor interface and its electrokinetics at the liquid-solid interface.

Nomenclature

C

concentration of reagent or polymeric additives [wppm] or [mol/cc]

C*

critical or overlap concentration of polymer [wppm] or [mol/cc]

Csf

surface-fluid constant in Rohsenow (1952) correlation [−]

Ccmc

critical micelle concentration [wppm] or [mol/cc]

CMC

critical micelle concentration [wppm] or [mol/cc]

g

gravitational acceleration [N]

h

heat transfer coefficient [W/m2 K]

hsurf

heat transfer coefficient of surfactant aqueous solution [W/m2 K]

n

exponent constant in Rohsenow (1952) correlation [−]

q

surface heat flux [W/m2]

\( {q}_w^{{\prime\prime} } \)

wall heat flux [W/m2]

Ra

average roughness [μm]

Rq

root-mean-square or rms roughness [μm]

Rp

peak-to-mean roughness [μm]

T

temperature [K] or [°C]

Tsat

saturation temperature [K] or [°C]

ΔT

temperature difference; wall superheat; [K] or [°C]

θ

liquid-solid contact angle [°]

θa

advancing contact angle [°]

σ

gas-liquid interfacial tension [N/m]

τ

surface age or time scale [s]

τg

bubble growth time [s]

τw

bubble incubation or waiting period [s]

ζ

streaming zeta potential [mV]

Notes

Acknowledgments

The facilities and other support from the Thermal-Fluids & Thermal Processing Laboratory, University of Cincinnati; the US Department of Energy, ARPA-E; as well as the collegial and collaborative discussions with Professor Milind A. Jog, University of Cincinnati, are gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Thermal-Fluids and Thermal Processing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Materials EngineeringUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vijay K. Dhir
    • 1
  1. 1.Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringUniversity of California Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

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