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Transition and Film Boiling

  • S. Mostafa Ghiaasiaan
Reference work entry

Abstract

Transition boiling, minimum film boiling (minimum heat flux), and film boiling are reviewed. The review will address pool and external flow boiling in Sect. 2. A discussion of internal flow boiling, with emphasis on post-critical heat flux regimes, will then follow in Sect. 3.

Pool boiling occurs without an imposed forced flow, where fluid flow is caused by phase change and natural convective only. In external flow boiling, the heated surface may be subject to an imposed fluid flow; however, the fluid field is much larger than the heated surface, and the heat transfer and phase change processes that occur at or near the heated surface have a minimal effect on the properties of the fluid away from the surface. In Sect. 2, the pool boiling curve and boiling regimes are reviewed, followed by a discussion of the phenomenology and theoretical aspects of hysteresis in transition boiling, the minimum film point, and the film boiling regime. Some widely used predictive methods are then presented.

In Sect. 3, the two-phase flow and heat transfer regimes in internal flow boiling in vertical and horizontal flow passages are discussed. Post-critical heat flux heat transfer regimes, including stable film boiling and dispersed droplet film boiling, are then discussed, and widely used predictive methods are presented.

Abbreviations

CHF

Critical heat flux

DNB

Departure from nucleate boiling

LP

Leidenfrost point

MFB

Minimum film boiling

ONB

Onset of nucleate boiling

OSV

Onset of significant void

Nomenclature

A

Atomic number

C, CP

Specific heat and constant-pressure specific heat (J/kg·K)

D

Diameter (m)

DH

Hydraulic diameter (m)

F

Time-averaged fraction of the total heated surface that is in contact with liquid; Chen’s enhancement factor

G

Mass flux (kg/m2·s)

Ga

Galileo number

Gr

Grashof number

\( \overrightarrow{g} \)

Gravitational acceleration vector (m/s2)

g

Gravitational constant (= 9.807 m/s2 at sea level)

h

Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2∙K)

hfg

Latent heat of vaporization (J/kg)

k

Thermal conductivity (W/m·K)

L

Length (m); characteristic length (m)

M

Molar mass (kg/kmol)

Nu

Nusselt number

P

Pressure (N/m2)

Pr

Prandtl number

q″

Heat flux (W/m2)

R

Radius (m)

Re

Reynolds number

Ref

Liquid-only Reynolds number

Reg

Vapor-only Reynolds number

S

Distance defining intermittency (m); Chen’s suppression factor

Sp

Superheat number

Sp*

Modified superheat number

T

Temperature (K)

t

Time (s)

u, v

Velocity (m/s)

x

Quality

xeq

Equilibrium quality

Xtt

Martinelli’s factor

Greek Characters

α

Void fraction

α

Thermal diffusivity (m2/s)

β

Volumetric thermal expansion coefficient (K−1)

δ

Film thickness (m)

ε

Radiative emissivity

λd

Fastest-growing wavelength (m)

λ3D

Wavelength associated with three-dimensional interfacial waves

λKH

Fastest-growing wavelength for two-dimensional Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (m)

λL

Laplace length scale (capillary length) (m)

μ

Viscosity (kg/m·s)

ν

Kinematic viscosity (m2/s)

θ

Azimuthal angle (rad); angle of inclination with respect to the horizontal plane (rad or degrees)

θ0,θa,θr

Equilibrium (static), advancing, and receding contact angles (rad or degrees)

ρ

Density (kg/m3)

σ

Surface tension (N/m)

σSB

Stefan–Boltzmann constant (5.67 × 10−8 W/m2·K4)

τ

Shear stress (N/m2)

Superscripts

_

Area averaged

*

Calculated at reference temperature

Subscripts

B

Bubble, vapor bulge

cr

Critical

eq

Equilibrium

f

Saturated liquid

FB

Film boiling

Film

Film temperature

FC

Forced convection

g

Saturated vapor

L

Liquid

m

Mixture, mixture average

NB

Nucleate boiling

rad

Radiation

ref

Reference

sat

Saturation

TB

Transition boiling

v

Vapor when it is not at saturation

W

Water

w

Wall

Ambient associated with a large surface

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vijay K. Dhir
    • 1
  1. 1.Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringUniversity of California Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

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