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Heat Transfer Media and Their Properties

Reference work entry

Abstract

This chapter presents a discussion on effect(s) of properties on heat transfer. In general, an impact of a property(ies) on heat transfer depends primarily on the mode of heat transfer: (1) conduction (steady state or transient; special case, nuclear fuels), (2) convection (single phase, forced or natural; two phase, boiling or condensation; and special cases: cryogenic gases, fluids at critical and supercritical pressures, liquid metals, and nuclear-reactor coolants), and (3) radiation.

In support of a general discussion on the importance of various properties for heat-transfer calculations, Sections 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 of this chapter contain basic properties in the tabulated form and property profiles vs. temperature in the graphical form of selected metals, alloys, insulation materials (only table data), and nuclear fuels (Sect. 3); selected gases at atmospheric pressure (Sect. 4); selected cryogenic gases (Sect. 5); low- and medium-temperature fluids on a saturation line (Sect. 6); water at subcritical, critical, and supercritical pressures; carbon dioxide, R-134a, ethanol, and methanol at supercritical pressures (Sect. 7); selected liquid metals on a saturation line (Sect. 8); and current and Generation IV nuclear-reactor coolants (Sect. 9).

Nomenclature

A

Area (m2)

cp

Specific heat at constant pressure (J/kg K)

\( {\overline{c}}_p \)

Averaged specific heat within the range of (TwTb); \( \left(\frac{H_w-{H}_b}{T_w-{T}_b\, }\right) \) (J/kg K)

D

Inside diameter (m)

Dhy

Hydraulic diameter (m); \( \left(\frac{4\, {A}_{fl}}{P_{wetted}}\right) \)

G

Mass flux, kg/m2s; \( \left(\frac{m}{A_{fl}}\right)=\rho u \)

g

Gravitational acceleration (m/s)2

H

Specific enthalpy (J/kg)

HTC

Heat-transfer coefficient (W/m)2K

hfg

Latent heat of evaporation (J/kg)

k

Thermal conductivity (W/m K)

L

Length (m)

m

Mass-flow rate (kg/s)

P, p

Pressure (Pa)

Q

Heat-transfer rate (W)

q

Heat flux, W/m2; \( \left(\frac{Q}{A_h}\right) \)

\( {q}_{\mathrm{p}.\mathrm{b}}^{\mathrm{cr}} \)

Critical heat flux (CHF) at pool boiling (W/m)2

T, t

Temperature (°C)

u

Axial velocity (m/s)

V

Volume (m)3

v

Specific volume (m3/kg)

Greek Letters

α

Thermal diffusivity, m2/s; \( \left(\frac{k}{c_p\, \rho}\right) \)

β

Volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, 1/K

Δ

Difference

δ

Thickness, m

μ

Dynamic viscosity, Pa s

ρ

Density, kg/m3

ρel

Electrical resistivity, Ohm·m

σ

Surface tension, N/m

τ

Time, s

υ

Kinematic viscosity, m2/s

ξ

Friction coefficient

Nondimensional Numbers

Gr

Grashof number; \( \left(\frac{g\, \beta \, \varDelta T\, {D}^3}{\nu^2}\right) \)

Nu

Nusselt number; \( \left(\frac{HTC\, D}{k}\right) \)

Pr

Prandtl number; \( \left(\frac{\mu \, {c}_p}{k}\right)=\left(\frac{\upsilon }{\alpha}\right) \)

\( \overline{\mathbf{\Pr}} \)

Averaged Prandtl number within the range of (TwTb); \( \left(\frac{\mu \, {\overline{c}}_p}{k}\right) \)

Re

Reynolds number; \( \left(\frac{u\, D}{v}\right)=\left(\frac{G\, D}{\mu}\right)=\left(\frac{\rho u\, D}{\mu}\right) \)

Ra

Rayleigh number; (Gr Pr)

Subscripts or Superscripts

ac

acceleration

ave

average

b

bulk

cr

critical

D

based on diameter

el

electrical

f

fluid

fg

fluid‐gas

fl

flow

fm

freezing/melting

fr

friction

g

gravitational

h

heated

hy

hydraulic

in

inlet

L

based on length

l

saturated liquid

local

out

outlet or outside

p

pressure

pc

pseudocritical

r

reduced

s, sat

saturation

sf

surface-fluid

v

vapor

vol

volume

w

wall

Acronyms and Abbreviations Widely Used in Text and List of References

AGR

Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor

BWR

Boiling Water Reactor

CANDU

CANada Deuterium Uranium (Reactor)

CHF

Critical Heat Flux

DHT

Deteriorated Heat Transfer

GFR

Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor

HT

Heat-Transfer

HTC

Heat-Transfer Coefficient

LBE

Lead-Bismuth Eutectic

LFR

Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor

MOX

Mixed Oxide (Nuclear Fuel)

MSFR

Molten Salt Fast Reactor

MSR

Molten Salt Reactor

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA)

NPP

Nuclear-Power Plant

PWR

Pressurized Water Reactor

R

Refrigerant

REFPROP

Reference Properties

SC

Supercritical

SCP

Supercritical Pressure

SCW

Supercritical Water

SCWR

Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor

SFR

Sodium Fast Reactor

SS

Stainless Steel

VHTR

Very-High-Temperature Reactor

wt

Weight

Overline

Symbols with an overline at the top denote average or mean values (e.g., Nu denotes average (mean) Nusselt number)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of TechnologyOshawaCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Yaroslav Chudnovsky
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Energy Delivery and UtilizationGas Technology InstituteDes PlainesUSA

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