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Cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and Associated Challenges

  • Luciana G. AngeliniEmail author
  • Andrea MartiniEmail author
  • Barbara PasseraEmail author
  • Silvia TavariniEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

The rising concern about the spread of obesity and diabetes, and a growing awareness about healthy foods in western societies have stimulated, in the last years, a strong interest toward stevia sweeteners as alternative of sucrose and artificial intensive sweeteners. The worldwide demand for purified steviol glycosides from stevia is steadily increasing, and it is expected that in the future the agricultural production capacity will be lower than the market demand. This provides a strong incentive to explore the possibilities to cultivate stevia and to produce leaves and extracts, beyond the traditional production zones. The cultivation of stevia might represent a formidable opportunity for the growers, in order to diversify the cropping systems and to meet the increasing market demand for high-quality and traceable raw material. In addition, several legislative initiatives, such as the steviol glycosides approval as food additive in several countries, represent favorable factors for the development of a stevia-based agro-industry. To foster the introduction of this novel species, a significant improvement of its cultivation should be achieved and a modern agronomical blueprint defined. It is, in fact, imperative to develop economically viable and environmentally sustainable crop production systems through the integration of site-specific agronomic techniques and efficient mechanization technologies for the production and processing of a higher quality product. Several agronomic aspects require still to be optimized (e.g., choice of the cultivar, propagation and transplanting, sustainable weed management, nutrition, irrigation, harvesting), in order to improve, not only the leaf yield, but also its quality in terms of steviol glycosides and bioactive compounds. Traceability and crop quality control along the production chain are the strongest points, in order to obtain a certification that will provide to the farmers preferential market access and to sell the raw material at a differential price.

The present chapter, therefore, aims to provide updated scientific information regarding the most important agronomic factors in order to foster stevia cultivation and attain maximum yield and quality.

Keywords

Agronomy Cultivation and sustainability Preharvest factors Stevia rebaudiana Sustainable crop production 

Abbreviations

2,4-D

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

ADI

Acceptable daily intake

AMF

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

B

Boron

BA

6-Benzyladenine

BW

Body weight

CCC

Chlorocholine chloride

Chl

Chlorophyll

Cu

Cupper

DPPH

2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

ET0

Reference (or potential) evapotranspiration

ETc

Crop evapotranspiration

FC

Field capacity

Fe

Iron

FYM

Farmyard manure

GACP

Good agricultural and collection practices

GAs

Gibberellins

IBA

Indole-3-butyric acid

IPM

Integrated pest management

IWM

Integrated weed management

K

Potassium

Kc

Crop coefficient

Kn

Kinetin

LAI

Leaf area index

LDs

Long-day conditions

MEP

Methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate

Mg

Magnesium

Mn

Manganese

MS

Murashige and Skoog medium

N

Nitrogen

NAA

α-Naphthaleneacetic acid

P

Phosphorus

PBZ

Paclobutrazol

PGPRs

Plant growth promoting rizhobacteria

PNUE

Photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency

PSB

Phosphorous solubilizing bacteria

Reb A

Rebaudioside A

S

Sulfur

SDs

Short-day conditions

SLW

Specific leaf weight

Stev

Stevioside

SVglys

Steviol glycosides

TDZ

Thidiazuron

UPOV

Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants

Zn

Zinc

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (DAFE)University of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.University of PisaPisaItaly

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