Living Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of GIS

pp 1-7

Date: Latest Version

Space-Time Geostatistics

  • Gerard B. M. HeuvelinkAffiliated withEnvironmental Sciences Group, Wageningen University Email author 
  • , Edzer PebesmaAffiliated withInstitute for Geoinformatics, University of Münster
  • , Benedikt GrälerAffiliated withInstitute of Hydrology, Ruhr University Bochum


Space-time geostatistics is concerned with the statistical modeling of environmental variables that vary in space as well as in time. It is an extension of conventional geostatistics, which only considers spatial variation. Common geostatistical concepts, such as the variogram, kriging, stochastic simulation, and sampling design optimization, have a natural extension in the space-time domain, although extra effort is required to model the joint variation in space and time effectively and realistically. The space-time variogram will have spatial and temporal components which may be very different because variation in space is not the same as variation in time. Space-time kriging takes these differences into account and yields optimal predictions at any point in the space-time domain of interest. The interpolation results can be displayed as a series or animations of spatial maps over time or as time series of predictions at as many spatial points as desired.

Space-time geostati ...

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