Encyclopedia of GIS

Living Edition
| Editors: Shashi Shekhar, Hui Xiong, Xun Zhou

Climate Hazards and Critical Infrastructures Resilience

  • Udit Bhatia
  • Allison Traylor
  • Catherine Moskos
  • Laura Blumenfeld
  • Lindsey Bressler
  • Tyler Hall
  • Rachael Heiss
  • Kevin D. Clark
  • Nan Deng
  • Devashish Kumar
  • Evan Kodra
  • Stephen E. Flynn
  • Haris N. Koutsopoulos
  • Jerome F. Hajjar
  • Auroop Ganguly
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-23519-6_1634-3

Introduction

Climate Hazards and Critical Infrastructures Resilience

Civil and environmental engineers design structures such as buildings, bridges, and levees based on implicit or explicit assessments of risks. Thus, dead and live loads are considered along with acute stressors including natural hazards, in addition to the strength of materials and the fragility of components. Safety factors in engineering design essentially attempt to account for unknown or perhaps even unknowable uncertainties and change. The consequences of failure, measured in terms of economic damage and danger to human lives, result in safety factor assignments. Probabilistic risk assessments and reliability analyses attempt to explicitly consider risks in engineering design. Performance-based engineering and fuse-based systems attempt to develop design paradigms that rely on anticipated stresses to structural components. In certain implementations, system level functionality may be maintained while allowing for...

Keywords

Transportation Remote Sensor Salvi 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Abdelghany KF, Shah SS, Raina S, Abdelghany AF (2004) A model for projecting flight delays during irregular operation conditions. J Air Transp Manag 10:385–394. doi:10.1016/j.jairtraman.2004.06.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aerts JCJH, Botzen WJW, Emanuel K, Lin N, Moel H de, Michel-Kerjan EO (2014) Evaluating flood resilience strategies for coastal megacities. Science 344: 473–475. doi:10.1126/science.1248222Google Scholar
  3. Albert R, Jeong H, Barabási A-L (2000) The Internet’s Achilles’ Heel: error and attack tolerance of complex networks. Nature 406:200–0Google Scholar
  4. Buldyrev SV, Parshani R, Paul G, Stanley HE, Havlin S (2010) Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks. Nature 464:1025–1028. doi:10.1038/nature08932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative (2015) [Internet]. [cited 1 Jul 2015]. Available: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13457
  6. Fisher L (2015) Disaster responses: More than 70 ways to show resilience. Nature 518:35–35. doi:10.1038/518035aCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. FlightAware – Flight Tracker/Flight Status/Flight Tracking. In: FlightAware [Internet]. [cited 1 Jul 2015]. Available: http://flightaware.com/
  8. FlightStats – Global Flight Tracker, Status Tracking and Airport Information [Internet]. [cited 1 Jul 2015]. Available: http://www.flightstats.com/go/Home/home.do
  9. Ganguly AR, Steinhaeuser K, Erickson DJ, Branstetter M, Parish ES, Singh N et al (2009) Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106:15555–15559. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904495106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghosh S, Mujumdar PP (2008) Statistical downscaling of GCM simulations to streamflow using relevance vector machine. Adv Water Resour 31:132–146. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2007.07.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghosh S, Das D, Kao S-C, Ganguly AR (2012) Lack of uniform trends but increasing spatial variability in observed Indian rainfall extremes. Nat Clim Change 2:86–91. doi:10.1038/nclimate1327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guimerà R, Mossa S, Turtschi A, Amaral LAN (2005) The worldwide air transportation network: anomalous centrality, community structure, and cities’ global roles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:7794–7799 doi:10.1073/pnas.0407994102MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Hawkins E, Sutton R (2009) The potential to narrow uncertainty in regional climate predictions. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 90:1095–1107. doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2607.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hernandez-Fajardo I, Dueñas-Osorio L (2013) Probabilistic study of cascading failures in complex interdependent lifeline systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 111:260–272. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2012.10.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. IPCC (2012) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation: special report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change [Internet]. Available: https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srex/SREX_Full_Report.pdf
  16. Jarrah AIZ, Yu G, Krishnamurthy N, Rakshit A (1993) A decision support framework for airline flight cancellations and delays. Transp Sci 27:266–280. doi:10.1287/trsc.27.3.266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R, Collins W, Deaven D, Gandin L et al (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77:437–471. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077 < 0437:TNYRP > 2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
  18. Koç Y, Warnier M, Kooij RE, Brazier FMT (2013) An entropy-based metric to quantify the robustness of power grids against cascading failures. Saf Sci 59:126–134. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2013.05.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Linkov I, Bridges T, Creutzig F, Decker J, Fox-Lent C, Kröger W et al (2014) Changing the resilience paradigm. Nat Clim Change 4:407–409. doi:10.1038/nclimate2227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Palmer TN, Shutts GJ, Hagedorn R, Doblas-Reyes FJ, Jung T, Leutbecher M (2005) Representing model uncertainty in weather and climate prediction. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 33:163–193. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.33.092203.122552MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Salvi K, Ghosh S, Ganguly AR (2015) Credibility of statistical downscaling under nonstationary climate. Clim Dyn 1–33 doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2688-9Google Scholar
  22. Sen P, Dasgupta S, Chatterjee A, Sreeram PA, Mukherjee G, Manna SS (2003) Small-world properties of the Indian railway network. Phys Rev E 67:036106. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.67.036106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Solé RV, Rosas-Casals M, Corominas-Murtra B, Valverde S (2008) Robustness of the European power grids under intentional attack. Phys Rev E 77:026102. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.77.026102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tebaldi C, Knutti R (2007) The use of the multi-model ensemble in probabilistic climate projections. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Math Phys Eng Sci 365:2053–2075. doi:10.1098/rsta.2007.2076MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vespignani A (2010) Complex networks: the fragility of interdependency. Nature 464:984–985. doi:10.1038/464984aCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Udit Bhatia
    • 1
  • Allison Traylor
    • 2
  • Catherine Moskos
    • 3
  • Laura Blumenfeld
    • 4
  • Lindsey Bressler
    • 5
  • Tyler Hall
    • 6
  • Rachael Heiss
    • 1
  • Kevin D. Clark
    • 7
  • Nan Deng
    • 1
  • Devashish Kumar
    • 1
  • Evan Kodra
    • 1
  • Stephen E. Flynn
    • 2
  • Haris N. Koutsopoulos
    • 4
  • Jerome F. Hajjar
    • 1
  • Auroop Ganguly
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Political ScienceNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Industrial EngineeringNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA
  4. 4.Northeastern UniversityBostonUSA
  5. 5.College of Social Sciences and HumanitiesNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA
  6. 6.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA
  7. 7.Villanova School of BusinessVillanova UniversityVillanovaUSA