Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics

Living Edition
| Editors: Deborah C Poff, Alex C. Michalos

Leadership Theory

  • Karianne KalshovenEmail author
  • Paul G. W. Jansen
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-23514-1_56-1



Leadership theory focuses mainly on perceptions of followers’ judgment of leadership behaviors. Perceptions of leadership behaviors are highly valuable, although it is not clear which behavioral criterion is applied in employee’s perceptions. There are several criteria that can be used to assess the effectiveness or adequacy of the behavior, for instance, aiming for effective and efficient goal-realization (strategic behaviors); truth and correctness (constative behaviors); sincerity, authenticity, and truthfulness (expressive behaviors); rightness and morality (normative behaviors); and personal change and transformation (inspirational behaviors). Thus, for instance, acting morally means applying rightness and morality criteria for evaluating behavior rather than strategic, constative, expressive, or inspirational criteria.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amsterdam Center for Integrity and LeadershipAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Management and Organization, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationVU UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Section editors and affiliations

  • Karianne Kalshoven
    • 1
  1. 1.Amsterdam Center for Integrity and LeadershipAmsterdamThe Netherlands