Ethical Peer Review
Peer review is a systematic process of evaluation of work by experts in the relevant field. To be a peer, the experts must be similarly qualified to the originators of a work (e.g., scholars in the same discipline, professors of the same rank, practitioners in the same discipline). The work evaluated could be scholarly manuscripts, grant applications, conference submissions, data, or the clinical activities of professionals such as physicians or teachers. A primary objective of peer review is to improve the quality of work by providing impartial feedback to the originators or implementers of the work. Expectations for the evaluation should be clearly stated but reporting formats can vary from checklists, written summaries, direct observation of work, or other methods appropriate to the...