Living Reference Work Entry

Principles of Diabetes Mellitus

pp 1-24

Date: Latest Version

Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  • Alexandra L. MigdalAffiliated withBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School Email author 
  • , Susan HerzlingerAffiliated withBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School
  • , Martin J. AbrahamsonAffiliated withBeth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes is a growing problem within the United States and worldwide. Lifestyle modification remains the cornerstone of management, though additional treatment with antihyperglycemic agents is often required. Appropriate management of hyperglycemia is necessary to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications, including microvascular and macrovascular disease. Treatment goals and management strategies should be individualized to each patient. Fortunately, the majority of patients can be well controlled with currently available agents if managed appropriately. Herein, we review the basic pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and use this knowledge to review different therapeutic options for managing hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords

Type 2 diabetes Metformin SGLT-2 inhibitors GLP-1 receptor agonists Sulfonylureas Thiazolidinediones Insulin