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Botulinum Toxin: Complications and Their Management

  • Marisa Gonzaga da Cunha
  • Ana Lúcia Gonzaga da Cunha
  • Bhertha Tamura
Living reference work entry

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Part of the Clinical Approaches and Procedures in Cosmetic Dermatology book series (CAPCD)

Abstract

In 2014, the International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery published the numbers of non-surgical cosmetic procedures performed around the world, showing that the most popular procedure was botulinum toxin A (BTXA) injections. Although the most popular treatment, complications and adverse events relating to BTXA are rare as knowledge improves every day due to various anatomic studies, clinical studies, and the improvement of doctors’ skills. Due to the mechanism of action of BTXA, its adverse events tend to be transitory and short in duration, but have a negative impact on the patient’s quality of life that needs to be minimized or avoided. Knowledge of facial anatomy, injection techniques, complications, and adverse events is paramount. In this chapter we discuss the possible complications and adverse events of BTXA, how to avoid them, and how to minimize them when they do occur.

Keywords

Botulinum toxin Complications Adverse events Ptosis of the lids Asymmetry Hypersensitivity Onabotulinum toxin Abobotulinum toxin Incobotulinum toxin Pain 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marisa Gonzaga da Cunha
    • 1
  • Ana Lúcia Gonzaga da Cunha
    • 2
  • Bhertha Tamura
    • 5
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Cosmetic DermatologyFaculdade de Medicina do ABC in Santo AndréSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Faculdade de Medicina do ABC in Santo AndréSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Barradas and Bourroul’s Ambulatório de Especialidades in Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Sorocaba’s Ambulatório de Especialidade in SorocabaSao PauloBrazil
  5. 5.Clínicas Hospital of São Paulo of the University of Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil

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