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Facial Anatomy View for Aesthetic Botulinum Toxin Injection

  • Bhertha TamuraEmail author
Living reference work entry

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Part of the Clinical Approaches and Procedures in Cosmetic Dermatology book series (CAPCD)

Abstract

Anatomy has been focused since the first papers of crow’s feet and frown lines treated with botulinum toxin (BT). The knowledge and deep understanding of the synergism and antagonism of the muscle contraction still generates a lot of doubts and is essential for an excellent outcome after the injection of BT. We already know that the patients, most of all, are wondering if they will have a natural look after the treatment. Several authors have published the importance of having an individualized analysis in order to achieve great results at absolutely low risk of asymmetries or other complications.

Keywords

Facial anatomy Botulinum toxin injection Muscle contraction Aesthetic 

References

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clínicas Hospital of São Paulo of the University of Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Barradas and Bourroul’s Ambulatório de Especialidades in Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Sorocaba’s Ambulatório de Especialidade in SorocabaSao PauloBrazil

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