Advertisement

Importance of Educology for Improving Education Systems

  • Theodore W. FrickEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Educology is “knowledge of education.” Since knowledge is “recorded signs of knowing” and education is “intended and guided learning,” educology is therefore “recorded signs of knowing about intended and guided learning.” Knowledge of education systems is also part of educology. Distinctions are made in educology among terms that include education, education system, learning, knowing, signs, and knowledge. Precisely defined terms are required for educology to advance, much as has been done in disciplines such as physics, biology, physiology, and anatomy. If we are to improve education systems, then we must create worthwhile education. Worthwhile education is defined in educology as “education that is both instrumentally good and intrinsically good.”

Note that italics font is specifically used in this chapter to identify terms that are defined precisely in educology. Formal definitions of terms in educology are enclosed in double quotation marks. Appendix A “Defined and Undefined Terms in Educology” includes a list of basic terms and their definitions.

Keywords

Educology Knowledge Education Education system Learning Knowing Signs Theory Universals Terminology Definitions Effective education Worthwhile education 

References

  1. Bailor, J. (2015). The calorie myth. New York, NY: HarperWave.Google Scholar
  2. Bateson, G. (1979). Mind and nature. New York, NY: E. P. Dutton.Google Scholar
  3. Bloodletting. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloodletting
  4. Brown, D. G. (1970). Knowing how and knowing that, what. In G. Pitcher & O. Wood (Eds.), Ryle: A collection of critical essays (pp. 213–248). Garden City, NY: Doubleday.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cornford, F. M. (translator, 1945). The republic of Plato. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  7. Duffy, F. (2009). The scarecrow education series on leading school improvement. Retrieved from: http://www.thefmduffygroup.com/publications/series.html
  8. Eades, M. R., & Eades, M. D. (1996). Protein power. New York, NY: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  9. Eagleman, D. (2015). The brain. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  10. Estep, M. (2003). A theory of immediate awareness: Self-organization and adaptation in natural intelligence. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Estep, M. (2006). Self-organizing natural intelligence: Issues of knowing, meaning and complexity. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  12. Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. (1998). Terminologia anatomica: International anatomical terminology. Stuttgart, Germany: Thieme.Google Scholar
  13. Frick, T. W. (1997). Artificially intelligent tutoring systems: What computers can and can’t know. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 107–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frick, T. W. (2018). The theory of totally integrated education: TIE. In J. M. Spector, B. B. Lockee, and M. D. Childress (Oversight Eds.), Learning, design, and technology: An international compendium of theory, research, practice and policy (Vol. 1: Learning theory and the learning sciences (J. Elen, Vol. ed.)). Springer International Publishing AG 2018 J.M. Spector et al. (eds.), Learning, Design, and Technology,  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-17727-4_69-2Google Scholar
  15. Frick, T., Thompson, K., & Koh, J. (2006). Predicting education system outcomes: A scientific approach. In: M. Simonson (Ed.), Proceedings of the Association for Educational Communication and Technology, Dallas, TX.Google Scholar
  16. Geach, P. (1964). Mental acts. New York, NY: The Humanistic Press.Google Scholar
  17. Goleman, D. (2011). The brain and emotional intelligence: New insights (Kindle ed.). Northhampton, MA: More Than Sound LLC.Google Scholar
  18. Greenspan, S. I., & Benderly, B. L. (1997). The growth of the mind and the endangered origins of intelligence. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  19. Greenspan, S. I., & Shanker, S. G. (2004). The first idea: How symbols, language, and intelligence evolved from our primate ancestors to modern humans (Kindle ed.). Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.Google Scholar
  20. Henneberg, M. (1998). Evolution of the human brain: Is bigger better? Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 25(9), 745–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Husserl, E. (1965). Phenomenology and the crisis of philosophy (Q. Lauer, Trans.). New York, NY: HarperCollins Torchbook.Google Scholar
  22. Kandel, E. R. (1989). Genes, nerve cells, and the remembrance of things past. Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 1(2), 103–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kandel, E. R. (2001). The molecular biology of memory storage: A dialogue between genes and synapses. Science, 294, 1030–1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kant, I. (1785). Grounding for the metaphysics of morals (3rd ed., J. W. Ellington, 1993, Trans.). Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. Lustig, R. (2009). Sugar: The bitter truth. University of California TV. Retrieved from http://www.uctv.tv/shows/Sugar-The-Bitter-Truth-16717
  26. Maccia, G. S. (1973). Epistemological considerations of educational objectives. Paper presented at the XVth Word Congress of Philosophy, Varna, Bulgaria. Retrieved from: http://educology.iu.edu/Maccia/Maccia1973EpistemologyOfEdObjectives.pdf
  27. Maccia, G. S. (1986). Right opinion and Peirce’s theory of signs. In: Paper Presented at the Semiotic Studies Faculty Seminar. Retrieved from: http://educology.indiana.edu/Maccia/RightOpinionAndPeircesTheoryOfSigns_GSMaccia1987.pdf
  28. Maccia, G. S. (1987). Genetic epistemology of intelligent natural systems. Systems Research, 4(3), 213–218. Retrieved from: http://educology.indiana.edu/Maccia/Correspondence_GeneticEpistemologyOfIntelligentNaturalSystems1987.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maccia, G. S. (1988). Genetic epistemology of intelligent natural systems: Propositional, procedural and performative intelligence. Paper Presented at Hangzhou University, China. Retrieved from: http://educology.indiana.edu/Maccia/GeneticEpistemologyOfIntelligentSystems_propositionalProceduralPerformativeIntelligence1988.pdf
  30. Maccia, E. S., & Maccia, G. S. (1966). Development of educational theory derived from three educational theory models (final report, project no. 5–0638). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.Google Scholar
  31. McKinley, M. P., O’Loughlin, V. D., & Bidle, T. S. (2016). Anatomy & physiology: An integrative approach (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar
  32. Molenda, M., & Rice, J. M. (1979). Simulation review: The diffusion simulation game. Produced and distributed by the university consortium for instructional development and technology (UCIDT). Simulations and Games, 10(4), 459–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mourshed, M., Chijioke, C., & Barber, M. (2010). How the world’s most improved school systems keep getting better. London: McKinsey & Co. Retrieved from: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/social-sector/our-insights/how-the-worlds-most-improved-school-systems-keep-getting-better
  34. National Center for Health Statistics. (2015). Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011–2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db219.htm
  35. Peirce, C. S. (1877). The fixation of belief. In J. Buchler (Ed.), The philosophic writings of Peirce. New York: Dover Publications, 1955, 5–22.Google Scholar
  36. Peirce, C. S. (1931). Collected papers, Vol. I, Principles of philosophy (C. Hartshorne & P. Weiss, Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Peirce, C. S. (1932). Collected papers, Vol. II, Elements of logic, (C. Hartshorne & P. Weiss, Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Peirce, C. S. (1934). Collected papers, Vol. V, Pragmatism and pragmaticism (C. Hartshorne & P. Weiss, Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Polyani, M. (1962). Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  40. Reigeluth, C. M., & Karnopp, J. R. (2013). Reinventing schools: It’s time to break the mold. Lanham, MD: Roman and Littlefield Education.Google Scholar
  41. Ryle, G. (1959). The concept of mind. New York, NY: Barnes and Noble.Google Scholar
  42. Scheffler, I. (1965). Conditions of knowledge. Glenview, IL: Scott-Foresman.Google Scholar
  43. Semmelweis, I. P. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9066723
  44. Short, T. L. (2007). Peirce’s theory of signs. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Squire, L. R., & Kandel, E. R. (1999). Memory: From mind to molecules. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Co.Google Scholar
  46. Stedman, T. L. (2006). Stedman’s medical dictionary (28th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  47. Steiner, E. (1977). Educology: Its origin and future. ERIC document No. ED141201.Google Scholar
  48. Steiner, E. (1986). Crisis in educology. In J. E. Christensen (Ed.), Educology 86. Proceedings of a Conference on Educational Research and Development with an Educational Perspective, at Australian National University, Canberra, 10–12 July (pp. 221–227). Sydney, NSW: Educology Research Associates.Google Scholar
  49. Steiner, E. (1988). Methodology of theory building. Sydney, NSW: Educology Research Associates.Google Scholar
  50. Taubes, G. (2016). The case against sugar. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  51. Thompson, K. R. (2006a). “General system” defined for predictive technologies of A-GSBT (axiomatic general systems behavioral theory). Scientific Inquiry Journal, 7(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  52. Thompson, K. R. (2006b). Axiomatic theories of intentional systems: Methodology of theory construction. Scientific Inquiry Journal, 7(1), 13–24.Google Scholar
  53. Thompson, K. R. (2008). ATIS graph theory. Columbus, OH: Systems Predictive Technologies. Retrieved from: https://mapsat.iu.edu/overview/reports/11ATISgraphtheory.pdf
  54. Thompson, K. R. (2019). ATIS glossary. Retrieved from https://aptac.sitehost.iu.edu/glossary/
  55. van Merriënboer, J. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013). Ten steps to complex learning: A systematic approach to four-component instructional design. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. von Bertalanffy, L. (1950). An outline of general systems theory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 1(2), 134–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. von Bertalanffy, L. (1972). The history and status of general systems theory. In G. J. Klir (Ed.), Trends in general systems theory (pp. 21–41). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  58. Vreeman, R., & Greene, G. (2007). Medical myths even doctors believe. British Medical Journal, 335(7633), 1288–1289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yazzie-Mintz, E. (2007). Voices of students on engagement: A report on the 2006 high school survey of student engagement. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED495758.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Instructional Systems TechnologySchool of Education, Indiana University BloomingtonBloomingtonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Eugene Kowch
    • 1
  1. 1.Werklund School of EducationUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations