Sponge Grounds as Key Marine Habitats: A Synthetic Review of Types, Structure, Functional Roles, and Conservation Concerns

  • Manuel Maldonado
  • Ricardo Aguilar
  • Raymond J. Bannister
  • James J. Bell
  • Kim W. Conway
  • Paul K. Dayton
  • Cristina Díaz
  • Julian Gutt
  • Michelle Kelly
  • Ellen L. R. Kenchington
  • Sally P. Leys
  • Shirley A. Pomponi
  • Hans Tore Rapp
  • Klaus Rützler
  • Ole S. Tendal
  • Jean Vacelet
  • Craig M. Young
Living reference work entry


This chapter reviews the major known monospecific and multispecific sponge aggregations in the world’s oceans. They are shown to occur from the intertidal to abyssal depths, in tropical, temperate, and high latitudes and sometimes to create spectacular formations, such as glass sponge reefs, lithistid reef-like fields, and carnivorous sponge grounds. Sponge aggregations are recognized as singular vulnerable habitats that deserve special research attention and legal protection. However, this review reveals that there is only a poor and fragmentary understanding of the main biological, environmental, and geochemical factors that favor and maintain these systems, including the food supply, which is fundamental knowledge. There is also a particular lack of information regarding reproductive biology, growth rates, life spans, and the main factors causing mortality, all crucial drivers for understanding population and community dynamics and for developing conservation strategies. The sponge aggregations have been shown to increase the structural complexity of the habitats, attracting a larger variety of organisms and locally enhancing biodiversity. From the very few cases in which sponge biomass and sponge physiology have been reliably approached jointly, phenomenal fluxes of matter and energy have been inferred. Through their benthic-pelagic coupling, some of the densest sponge aggregations have a significant local or regional impact on major biogeochemical cycles and food webs. Physical damage and habitat destruction derived from man-driven activities along with epidemic diseases facilitated by global environmental alterations emerge as major threats to the future of the sponge aggregations.


Porifera Benthic-pelagic coupling Food chains Reef Mangrove Deep-sea benthos Arctic benthos Antarctic benthos Conservation biology Vulnerable habitats 



The authors thank colleagues and institutions for kind picture contributions: Kevin Coate (Fig. 1a), Tracey Bates (Fig. 3c–e), Chip Clark (Fig. 3a, b), and Carla Piantoni (Fig. 3c), Institute of Marine Research (Figs. 1b, c and 4b), Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (Fig. 6c, d), National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) of New Zealand (Figs. 6d and 7a, b), and Neptune Minerals Inc. (Fig. 7d, e), and Alfred Wegener Institute/Marum, University of Bremen, Germany (Fig. 8a, 8d-g). This study has benefitted from funding by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CTM2012-37787) to MM; from the Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program and the National Museum of Natural History, Washington to KR, CD, and MM (Contribution Number 986); from Stiftung Drittes Millennium, Fundación Biodiversidad, and the Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente to Oceana and RA; from NIWA, New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology, and CSIRO’s Division of Marine and Atmospheric Research to MK; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada for Discovery and Ship Time grants to SPL; from the Norwegian Research Council to RJB and HTR; from The Norwegian Oil and Gas and the Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre to HTR; and from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada for Discovery and Ship Time grants to SPL.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuel Maldonado
    • 1
  • Ricardo Aguilar
    • 2
  • Raymond J. Bannister
    • 3
  • James J. Bell
    • 4
  • Kim W. Conway
    • 5
  • Paul K. Dayton
    • 6
  • Cristina Díaz
    • 7
  • Julian Gutt
    • 8
  • Michelle Kelly
    • 9
  • Ellen L. R. Kenchington
    • 10
  • Sally P. Leys
    • 11
  • Shirley A. Pomponi
    • 12
  • Hans Tore Rapp
    • 13
  • Klaus Rützler
    • 14
  • Ole S. Tendal
    • 15
  • Jean Vacelet
    • 16
  • Craig M. Young
    • 17
  1. 1.Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC)GironaSpain
  2. 2.OceanaMadridSpain
  3. 3.Institute of Marine ResearchBergenNorway
  4. 4.Victoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand
  5. 5.Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Geoscience CentreSidneyCanada
  6. 6.University of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  7. 7.Museo Marino de MargaritaBoca de RioVenezuela
  8. 8.Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine ResearchAlfred Wegener InstituteBremerhavenGermany
  9. 9.National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)Auckland CentralNew Zealand
  10. 10.Bedford Institute of OceanographyDartmouthCanada
  11. 11.University of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  12. 12.Harbor Branch Oceanographic InstituteFlorida Atlantic UniversityFort PierceUSA
  13. 13.University of BergenBergenNorway
  14. 14.National Museum of Natural History (NMNH)Smithsonian InstitutionWashingtonUSA
  15. 15.Natural History Museum of DenmarkKøbenhavnDenmark
  16. 16.Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie marine et continentaleMarseilleFrance
  17. 17.Oregon Institute of Marine Biology (OIMB-UO)CharlestonUSA

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