Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Balance and Motion

  • Michael Khalil
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_992-1



The vestibular system of the inner ear contains various structures responsible to keep the person’s balance and posture


The balance system, otherwise called vestibular system, is a complex system with many structures. These are the bony labyrinth, the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, the cerebellum, the eyes, the brain cortex, and the muscles and joints which connect to the brainstem known as the vestibular nuclei (Munir and Clarke 2013; Chang and Khana 2013).

The Vestibular System

The vestibular system contains two structures known as the macula and crista ampullaris; these are sensory neuroepithelium (Chang and Khana 2013). They consist of sensory mechanoreceptors called hair cells contained in a neuroepithelium membrane. Russel and Sellick (1978) are credited with being the first to study the mammalian inner cells. The job of these cells is to distribute the movements of the cochlea partition to the central nervous system for...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Khalil
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus

Section editors and affiliations

  • Menelaos Apostolou
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus