Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Middle Ear, The

  • Michael Khalil
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_991-1



The part of the ear between the eardrum and the oval window which contains the three bones (malleus, incus, stapes), the tympanic muscles (Stapedius and tensor tympani), the oval window, the round window, and the Eustachian tube.


The middle ear has three bones that make the ossicular chain, namely, the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and the stapes (stirrup). These are responsible for the sound to reach the tympanic membrane. The oval window, along with the round window, work with an opposite way to each other in order to influence the perilymph of the cochlea to move in response to sound. The two tympanic muscles, Stapedius and Tensor Tympani help to protect the inner structures of the ear from damage of high intensity and frequency sounds. Further, the round and oval window work together to transmit sound to the structures of the inner ear. The Eustachian tube is to allow mucous to flow out of the middle ear and the air (oxygen) to move...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Khalil
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus

Section editors and affiliations

  • Menelaos Apostolou
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus