A personality disorder is a pervasive and stable pattern of behavior that emerges in adolescence or early adulthood, in which distressing and impairing behaviors deviate from the expectations of the individual’s society.
The ten personality disorders (PDs) discussed in this chapter are divided into three clusters based on phenotypic similarity, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association 2013). Cluster A PDs (paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal) present with weak or nonexistent social attachments and odd/eccentric behavior, which may be an alternative expression of a schizophrenia predisposition (Miller et al. 2001). Cluster B PDs (antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic) share common features with one another, such as impulsive acting out,unpredictable behaviors, and dramatic presentation (Sutker and Allain 2002...
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