Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

In-Group–Out-Group Bias

  • Alexander ShkurkoEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_644-1



A tendency to react differently and asymmetrically toward others, depending on whether they are from the in-group (to which an individual belongs) or from the out-group.


Unlike other species, humans live in large and complex social groups, which are based on numerous and diverse social relations, extended cooperation, and cultural norms. To deal with this “ultra-sociality” (Tomasello 2014), humans needed advanced and specialized skills to accurately represent the complex social structure, identify and regulate social relations, predict others’ behaviors, and develop own behavioral strategies. The foundation of such abilities is social categorization, i.e., perception and representation of others in terms of their group membership and common, typical traits. Social categorization helps to reduce the complexity of social environment by applying a limited set of rules to unlimited number of social agents.

The simplest and basic...

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UlyanovskRussia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Jaimie Arona Krems
    • 1
  1. 1.Oklamoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA