Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Michael A. Woodley of Menie, Yr.

Living reference work entry

Later version available View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_3838-2

Professional Life

Michael Anthony Woodley of Menie, Yr. (Younger), is a self-described sociobiologist with interests in traditional and molecular behavioral genetics, community and theoretical evolutionary ecology, evolutionary cliodynamics, and psychometric theories of human intelligence and life history (LH) strategies.

Woodley of Menie has had several academic affiliations, but his most permanent one is as a Lifetime Fellow at the Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

His most notable contributions have been: (1) Cognitive Differentiation-Integration Effort Theory, which concerns the systematic attenuation of the correlations among the different components of human intelligence by slower LH speeds; (2) the Co-Occurrence Model of Secular Trends in Human Intelligence, which resolves Cattell’s paradox, or the apparent incongruity between the observations of persistent selection against intelligence (which is highly heritable)...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Bachmann, S.O., Cross, E., Kalbassi, S., Sarraf, M.A., Woodley of Menie, M.A., & Baudouin, S. J. (2018). Protein pheromone MUP20/Darcin is a vector and target of indirect genetic effects in mice. bioRxiv, 1–20.  https://doi.org/10.1101/265769
  2. Demeneix, B. (2017). Toxic cocktail: How chemical pollution is poisoning our brains. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Dewar, P. B. (2001). Burke’s Landed Gentry of Great Britain - The Kingdom in Scotland, 19th ed. Vol. 1. Wilmington, DE: Burke’s Peerage and Gentry, LLC.Google Scholar
  4. Figueredo, A. J., Sefcek, J. A., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., King, J. E., & Jacobs, W. J. (2005). Evolutionary personality psychology. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), Handbook of evolutionary psychology (pp. 851–877). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Figueredo, A. J., Woodley, M. A., Brown, S. D., & Ross, K. C. (2013). Multiple successful tests of the strategic differentiation-integration effort (SD-IE) hypothesis. Journal of Social, Evolutionary and Cultural Psychology, 7, 361–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Figueredo, A. J., Cabeza de Baca, T., Fernandes, H. B. F., Black, C. J., Peñaherrera-Aguirre, M., Hertler, S. C., Garcia, R., Meisenberg, G., & Woodley, M. A. (2016). A sequential canonical cascade model of social biogeography: Plants, parasites, and people. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 3, 40–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kalbassi, S., Bachmann, S. O., Cross, E., Roberton, V. H., & Baudouin, S. J. (2017). Male and female mice 14 lacking Neuroligin-3 modify the behavior of their wild-type littermates. eNeuro, 4, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kong, A., Banks, E., Poplin, R., Garimella, K.V., Maguire, J.R. … Stefansson, K. (2017). Selection against variants in the genome associated with educational attainment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 114, E727–E732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Madison, G., Woodley of Menie, M. A., & Sänger, J. (2016). Secular slowing of auditory simple reaction time in Sweden (1959–1985). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Pesta, B. J. (2018). Bibliometric analysis across eight years 2008–2015 of Intelligence articles: An updating of Wicherts (2009). Intelligence, 67, 26–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pietschnig, J., & Voracek, M. (2015). One century of global IQ gains: A formal meta-analysis of the Flynn effect (1909–2013). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 282–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rushton, J. P. (2004). Placing intelligence into an evolutionary framework or how g fits into the r–K matrix of life-history traits including longevity. Intelligence, 32, 321–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sarraf, M. (2017). Review of historical variability in heritable general intelligence: Its evolutionary origins and socio-cultural consequences. Personality and Individual Differences, 109, 238–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sarraf, M. A., & Woodley of Menie, M. A. (2017). Of mice and men: Empirical support for the population-based social epistasis amplification model. eNeuro, 4, 1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sarraf, M. A., Woodley of Menie, M. A., & Feltham, C. (2019). Modernity, Nihilism and Mental Health. Oxfordshire: Routledge (in press).Google Scholar
  16. Wongupparaj, P., Wongupparaj, R., Kumari, V., & Morris, R. G. (2017). The Flynn effect for verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory: a cross-temporal meta-analysis. Intelligence, 64, 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Woodley, M. A. (2011). The cognitive differentiation-integration effort hypothesis: A synthesis between the fitness indicator and life history models of human intelligence. Review of General Psychology, 15, 228–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Woodley, M. A. (2012a). A life history model of the Lynn-Flynn effect. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 152–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Woodley, M. A. (2012b). The social and scientific temporal correlates of genotypic intelligence and the Flynn effect. Intelligence, 40, 189–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Woodley, M. A., Figueredo, A. J., Ross, K. C., & Brown, S. D. (2013a). Four successful tests of the cognitive differentiation-integration effort hypothesis. Intelligence, 41, 832–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Woodley, M. A., te Nijenhuis, J., & Murphy, R. (2013b). Were the Victorians cleverer than us? The decline in general intelligence estimated from a meta-analysis of the slowing of simple reaction time. Intelligence, 41, 843–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Woodley, M. A., Madison, G., & Charlton, B. G. (2014a). Possible dysgenic trends in simple visual reaction time performance in the Scottish Twenty-07 cohort: A reanalysis of Deary and Der (2005). Mankind Quarterly, 55, 110–124.Google Scholar
  23. Woodley, M. A., te Nijenhuis, J., & Murphy, R. (2014b). Is there a dysgenic secular trend towards slowing simple reaction time? Responding to a quartet of critical commentaries. Intelligence, 46, 131–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Woodley, M. A., & Figueredo, A. J. (2013). Historical variability in heritable general intelligence: its evolutionary origins and sociocultural consequences. Buckingham: Buckingham University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Woodley of Menie, M. A., & Fernandes, H. B. F. (2015). Do opposing secular trends on backwards and forwards digit span evidence the co-occurrence model? A comment on Gignac (2015). Intelligence, 50, 125–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Woodley of Menie, M. A., te Nijenhuis, J., & Murphy, R. (2015a). The Victorians were still faster than us. Commentary: Factors influencing the latency of simple reaction time. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Woodley of Menie, M. A., te Nijenhuis, J., & Murphy, R. (2015b). Do variable signal luminances and confounded stimuli contribute to slowing simple RT and cross study heterogeneity? A response to Parker (2014). Intelligence, 49, 23–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Woodley of Menie, M.A., Figueredo, A.J., Sarraf, M. A., Hertler, S., Fernandes, H.B.F., & Peñaherrera-Aguirre, M. (2017a). The rhythm of the West: A biohistory of the modern era, AD 1600 to the present (Journal of social political and economic studies, monograph series, Vol. 37). Washington, DC: Scott Townsend Press.Google Scholar
  29. Woodley of Menie, M. A., Sarraf, M., Pestow, R., & Fernandes, H. B. F. (2017c). Social epistasis amplifies the fitness costs of deleterious mutations, engendering rapid fitness decline among modernized populations. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 3, 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Woodley of Menie, M.A., Dutton, E., Figueredo, A.J., Carl, N., Debes, F., Hertler, S. … Rindermann, H. (2018a). Communicating intelligence research: Media misrepresentation, the Gould effect, and unexpected forces. Intelligence (in press).Google Scholar
  31. Woodley of Menie, M.A., Sarraf, M. A., Peñaherrera-Aguirre, M., Fernandes, H.B.F., & Becker, D. (2018b). What caused over a century of decline in general intelligence? Testing predictions from the genetic selection and neurotoxin hypotheses. Evolutionary Psychological Science (in press).Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.University of RochesterRochesterUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Todd K. Shackelford
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyOakland UniversityRochesterUSA