A tool directed toward another animal (social target) or the use of another animal as a tool (social means).
Tool use in nonhuman animals takes many forms. Social tool use consists of two different categories. Social-target tool use involves an animal using a tool toward or for the purpose of another animal. For instance, a male gila woodpecker often fed his offspring with honey, but this proved difficult when the honey was thinned down. He then removed pieces of bark and dipped them in the honey, which allowed him to transport it to his offspring. Thus, the bark was a tool that functioned to transport a liquid to a social target. The second category is social-means tool use: using another animal as a tool. For example, African elephant bulls have been observed to pick up and throw young bulls at fences, which broke and consequently enabled the bulls to pass. The young bulls were used as throwing tools. Some cases involve both social-target and social-means tool...
KeywordsTriadic Interaction Gestural Communication Young Bull Social Tool Social Target
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