Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Brain Imaging

  • Satyajit PandaEmail author
  • Sagarika Mahapatro
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_2222-1



Brain imaging is the use of modern technology to study structural anatomy, physiology, and metabolism of brain.


The evolution of modern brain imaging is synchronous with medical imaging with the discovery of X-ray in 1985 by German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen. It started with plain radiography of skull in different views and progressed with discovery of contrast agents and modification of X-ray technique for image acquisition. Radiographs taken after in vivo introduction of various contrast agents lead to development of pneumoencephalography, ventriculography, and angiography. Modification of X-ray technique with continuous stream of X-rays collected on an input screen after passing target organ allowed real time visualization of moving anatomical structures like a video called fluoroscopy.

The introduction of Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imagingrevolutionized medical imaging in terms of...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mayo Medical CenterLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department Of NeurologyKing George’s Medical UniversityLucknowIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Karin Machluf
    • 1
  1. 1.Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA