Products and Byproducts of Natural Selection
What is the proper way to interpret the appearance of design in nature? Before 1859 and the publication of Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, the answer seemed obvious – design means a designer. In Natural Theology, theologian William Paley famously analogized the appearance of design in the living world to the appearance of design in a man-made object, a watch:
… [S]uppose I had found a watch upon the ground, and it should be inquired how the watch happened to be in that place … There must have existed, at some time, and at some place or other, an artificer or artificers, who formed [the watch] for the purpose which we find it actually to answer; who comprehended its construction, and designed its use…. Every indication of contrivance, every manifestation of design, which existed in the watch, exists in the works of nature; with the difference, on the side of nature, of being greater or more, and that in a degree which exceeds all...
- Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Bear, M. F., Connor, B. W., & Paradiso, M. A. (2007). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
- Buller, D. J. (2005). Adapting minds: Evolutionary psychology and the persistent quest for human nature. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Christian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to live by (1st ed.). New York: Henry Holt & Co.Google Scholar
- Davies, W., Isles, A., & Wilkinson, L. (2005). Imprinted gene expression in the brain. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(3). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149763404001678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dawkins, R. (1986). The blind watchmaker. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- Dawkins, R. (1996). Climbing mount improbable. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- Dawkins, R. (1982). The extended phenotype: The gene as the unit of selection. Oxford: Freeman.Google Scholar
- Dawkins, R. (2009). The Purpose of Purpose. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1776&v=mT4EWCRfdUg.
- Dennett, D. C. (1996). Darwin's dangerous idea: Evolution and the meanings of life. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
- De Palma, G., Collins, S. M., Bercik, P., & Verdu, E. F. (2014). The microbiota–gut–brain axis in gastrointestinal disorders: Stressed bugs, stressed brain or both? The Journal of Physiology, 592(Pt 14). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4214655/.
- Gibbard, A. (1990). Wise choices, apt feelings: A theory of normative judgment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Gould, S. J., & Lewontin, R. C. (1994). The spandrels of san Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: A critique of the Adaptationist Programme. In E. Sober (Ed.), Conceptual issues in evolutionary Biology_ (pp. 73–90). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking fast and slow (1st ed.). New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.Google Scholar
- Marcus, G. (2008). Kluge: The haphazard evolution of the human mind (pp. 11–12). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Kindle Edition.Google Scholar
- Maynard Smith, J. (1972). “Game theory and the evolution of fighting”. On evolution. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-85224-223-9.Google Scholar
- Menzel, C. (2016). In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Actualism. The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (winter 2016 edition) https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2016/entries/actualism/.Google Scholar
- Paley, W. (1809) Natural Theology. 12th edition.Google Scholar
- Pinker, S. (1997). How the mind works. New York: Norton 2009 edition.Google Scholar
- Wikipedia. List of cognitive biases. Accessed 2 Sep 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases.
- Wright, S. (1932). The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding and selection in evolution. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of Genetics, 1, 356–366.Google Scholar