Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Victims Mostly Men

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1686-1



An unfortunate person who suffers from some adverse circumstance.


Prior to the 1960s, criminological inquiry primarily centralized upon offender/criminal characteristics; negating situations, behaviors, and characteristics associated with victimization. While researchers had previously attempted to develop victim typologies with the use of law enforcement data, criminologists were ultimately unsuccessful in their typological endeavors (Mendelsohn 1976). However, in the 1960s the first self-report victimization survey was developed and conducted allowing researches insight into what is now known as the dark figure of crime (Reiss 1967). After examining and refining methodological problems associated with the original survey, the first national level annual offender/victim analysis was implemented (National Crime Survey 1973; Barnes, Seepersad, Wilkis, & Wortley, 2016).

Since the development and implementation of...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Florida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Kevin Beaver
    • 1
  1. 1.Florida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA